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  1. Taal Engels Abstract: 'This paper examines discourses of male prostitution through an analysis of scientific texts. A contrast is drawn between nineteenth-century understandings of male prostitution and twentieth-century accounts of ma ...

    Abstract:'This paper examines discourses of male prostitution through an analysis of scientific texts. A contrast is drawn between nineteenth-century understandings of male prostitution and twentieth-century accounts of male prostitution. In contrast to female prostitution, male prostitution was not regarded as a significant social problem throughout the nineteenth century, despite its close association with gender deviation and social disorder. Changing conceptions of sexuality, linked with the emergence of the ‘adolescent’, drew scientific attention to male prostitution during the 1940s and 1950s. Research suggested that male prostitution was a problem associated with the development of sexual identity. Through the application of scientific techniques, which tagged and differentiated male prostitute populations, a language developed about male prostitution that allowed for normative assessments and judgements to be made concerning particular classes of male prostitute. The paper highlights how a broad distinction emerged between public prostitutes, regarded as heterosexual/ masculine, and private prostitutes, regarded as homosexual/effeminate. This distinction altered the way in which male prostitution was understood and governed, allowing for male prostitution to be constituted as a public health concern.'

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Mannenprostitutie
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Boy prostitution
    • Male victims
    • Engels
  2. Taal Engels ECPAT International The overall objective of this legal study is to assess current international, regional and domestic legal responses to combat Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism (SECTT). The study also aims ...

    The overall objective of this legal study is to assess current international, regional and domestic legal responses to combat Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism (SECTT). The study also aims to highlight the main legal elements required to make these responses effective to help address and strengthen future interventions. Based on the analysis, recommendations intend to inform, enhance and address current challenges.

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • International
    • ECPAT International
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels Australian Federal Police Law enforcement, including the Australian Federal Police (AFP) as the international gateway for information on child exploitation matters in Australia, has experienced an unprecedented increase in the i ...

    Law enforcement, including the Australian Federal Police (AFP) as the international gateway for information on child exploitation matters in Australia, has experienced an unprecedented increase in the incidence of online child exploitation reporting across Australia over the last several years, challenging the operational resources of all respective agencies. Transnational child sexual exploitation is underreported within many overseas jurisdictions. Cultural barriers and poor levels of community awareness, combined with reliance on the income foreign tourists provide, make many countries in Southeast Asia, in particular, vulnerable to online and travelling child sexual exploitation.

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • Australië
    • Australian Federal Police
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels
  4. Language Dutch 60 reads Center for the Study of Democracy The current publication presents a study on child trafficking conducted in seven EU member states: Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Slovakia. The study looks at three specific ...

    The current publication presents a study on child trafficking conducted in seven EU member states: Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Slovakia. The study looks at three specific forms of trafficking in persons: child trafficking for begging, for pickpocketing and for sexual exploitation of boys and the way they manifest themselves among Roma communities.Expert opinions reveal a significant overrepresentation of Roma children among the victims of trafficking for begging and pick-pocketing. While trafficking for sexual exploitation of boys is the most hidden and least studied phenomenon, victim caseloads in Bulgaria, one of the two main source countries of trafficking victims to the EU, reveals that one fifth of the victims trafficked for sexual exploitation are boys. This factor, together with previous field observations of vulnerabilities of prostituting Roma minors to child trafficking, determined that sexual exploitation of boys would be the third form of trafficking to be studied.Prostitution of Roma boys and transgender persons was detected in the countries Italy, Romania, Bulgaria and Slovakia, typically considered as origin countries for victims of trafficking. Previous studies in Bulgaria reveal a growing number of Roma transgender persons selling sexual services on the street. This phenomenon is attributed to the relative lack of stigma towards same sex sexual activities within the Roma communities studied and were also explained by a pattern of impoverished men engaging in sex for money.  According to a report on HIV and sex work, most of the transgender sex workers are transvestites of Roma origin, working in hidden environments, due to the stigma attached to male prostitution. Roma boys enter prostitution as minors and some of them are HIV positive and suffer heroin addiction.Boy and transgender prostitution is also present in Roma communities in Hungary, Slovakia and Romania. However, there are no estimations regarding the approximate ratio between Roma and non-Roma. In Slovakia, Roma boys increasingly enter the sex markets either as homosexuals or transvestites. Their clients are mainly random tourists, visitors to restaurants or random drivers passing the localities. Boys and transgender persons who could become victims of forced prostitution in Slovakia are most frequently in the age range of 17 to 19 years, but identified cases in the qualitative study show the lowest age at 15 years. Those who offer sexual services meet together and have created a tight-knit community, where they exchange „job offers“. Similar tight communities were noticed also in segregated Roma neighbourhoods in Bulgaria.In Hungary, “hidden prostitution” of underage males is reported as increasing the risk of child trafficking. Young boys and girls are used for prostitution and they are taken directly to clients by their pimps, thus avoiding the visibility of street prostitution. The youngest victim identified through occasional interviews was firstly exploited at the age of 9.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Italy
    • Bulgaria
    • Romania
    • Slovakia
    • Greece
    • Oostenrijk
    • Center for the Study of Democracy
    • pick-pocketing
    • transvesties
    • Sexual exploitation
    • begging
    • Roma
    • Engels
  5. Language English 94 reads This report is presented by the Canadian Centre for Child Protection. It is meant to highlight some of the successes and accomplishments of Cybertip.ca over its 10 years of operation as Canada’s national tipline. While not exhaus ...

    This report is presented by the Canadian Centre for Child Protection. It is meant to highlight some of the successes and accomplishments of Cybertip.ca over its 10 years of operation as Canada’s national tipline. While not exhaustive, the report paints a picture of Cybertip.ca’s research and work as well as provides information about the larger issue of child sexual exploitation on the Internet. 

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Grooming
    • Webcam Child Sex Tourism (WCST)
    • Sexting
    • Grooming
    • Minor
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels
  6. Taal Engels Maite Verhoeven Abstract:   Representations of the sex industry as a nest for involuntary sex work and exploitation shape the answers governments formulate to regulate the industry. In the legalized sex industry of the Netherlan ...

    Abstract: Representations of the sex industry as a nest for involuntary sex work and exploitation shape the answers governments formulate to regulate the industry. In the legalized sex industry of the Netherlands, additional regulations and measures have been implemented recently to expand control and to prevent human trafficking. Increasing criticisms however claim that stricter control of the sex industry is not always in favor of the people concerned. This article uses symbolic interactionism to explore the meanings sex workers ascribe to their situation, to their work, and to the government’s interventions. The article addresses an example of a recently introduced anti-trafficking measure: the mandatory intake of people who want to work in the sex industry, meaning a face-to-face conversation with the authorities. This intake should inform sex workers and provide the local authorities with the possibility of identifying signs of trafficking, which can lead to work restrictions. However, interviews with sex workers show that the government’s intentions to offer help and protection for sex workers can mean control, discrimination, and work restrictions. Whereas the government wants to preclude possible victims of human trafficking from working in the sex industry, sex workers perceive their situation as a possibility to improve their lives. As a consequence, they withhold information about pimps and boyfriends from the authorities, or move to work in other cities, and sparingly use the assistance offered by the authorities.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Netherlands
    • Maite Verhoeven
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Sex work
    • Government Policy
    • Engels
  7. Taal Engels Jasmine-Kim Westendorf Louise Searle International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001 Published: 01 March 2017   Abstract by authors:   In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation ...

    International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387.DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001Published: 01 March 2017 Abstract by authors: In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) ‘the most significant risk to UN peacekeeping missions’. The exploitation and abuse of women and children by peacekeepers, aid workers, private contractors and other interveners has become ubiquitous to peace operations, ranging from rape to transactional sex, sex trafficking, prostitution and pornography. This article investigates the causes of SEA by interveners, and the development of policy responses undertaken by the UN and the international humanitarian community to prevent and ensure accountability for SEA. We argue that use of the umbrella term ‘SEA’, while helpful in distinguishing such behaviour from other forms of abuse, obscures the significant differences in the form, function and causes of the behaviours that fall under it, and we develop an account of the dominant forms SEA takes, based on survivor testimony, in order to better understand why policy responses have been ineffective. Our analysis of global policies around SEA demonstrates that it is dealt with as a discrete form of misbehaviour that occurs on an individual level and can be addressed through largely information-based training processes that inform personnel of its prohibition but fail to engage them in discussions of the local, international, normative, systemic and structural factors that give rise to it. We identify the structural and bureaucratic pressures that have contributed to the narrowing of approach regarding SEA to focus on individual compliance rather than the more complex set of factors at play, and which have undermined the effectiveness of policies globally.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Jasmine-Kim Westendorf
    • Louise Searle
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Gender
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels
  8. Language Dutch 3 reads The Freedom Fund Executive summary Since it began in 2011, the conflict in Syria has devastated the lives of millions of men, women and children. Fearing violence and persecution, families have fled their homes to seek safety in oth ...

    Executive summarySince it began in 2011, the conflict in Syria has devastated the lives of millions of men, women and children. Fearing violence and persecution, families have fled their homes to seek safety in other countries in the region and around the globe. Many crossed the border into neighbouring Lebanon. Few would have expected to find themselves forced into slavery.While there are a large number of organisations in Lebanon providing services and support to Syrian refugees, including Palestinian Syrians, efforts to curb the growing incidence of slavery and human trafficking are often uncoordinated, limited in their focus and do not always target those most at risk.This report sets out a pathway to deliver tangible and lasting change. It examines the different ways in which slavery is occurring among Syrian refugees in Lebanon and the multiple factors that combine to force people into situations of slavery. Addressing these risk factors will require the commitment of a broad range of stakeholders, including the Lebanese government, international governments, international organisations, NGOs and donors. Lebanon, which borders Syria to the west, has been at the front line in responding to the humanitarian crisis that has unfolded over the past five years. Given the extensive social, economic and historical ties between the countries, the Lebanese government initially operated an ‘open door’ policy for those fleeing the conflict. Today, one in five people in Lebanon is a refugee from Syria. With more than 1.2 million refugees living within its borders, no other country in the world hosts more refugees on a per capita basis. Such an influx has, however, placed significant stress on the country. As a consequence, the Lebanese government has taken steps to effectively close its borders and, in May 2015, instructed the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to stop registering new refugees from Syria. It has established a sponsorship system to limit the numbers arriving from Syria and has imposed stringent residency renewal regulations. This has left Syrian refugees open to detention and deportation for entering, working and staying in Lebanon without the correct paperwork. These policies have simply exacerbated an already dire humanitarian crisis for Syrian refugees, many of whom live in abject poverty. With no opportunity to work legally, and with children unable to go to school, refugees are forced into desperate situations to simply survive. Syrian refugees often find themselves working in hard, dangerous or exploitative jobs for little or no money. However, with the ever-present risk of detection and deportation, families are increasingly sending their children out to work, as they can pass more freely through the security check points operated by Lebanese authorities. Our study found that slavery of Syrian refugees in Lebanon is a rapidly growing concern, which manifests in the following ways:• Child labour has increased significantly in Lebanon since the start of the conflict in Syria. One leading NGO estimated that between 60 and 70 percent of Syrian refugee children are working, with child labour rates even higher in the Bekaa Valley. There is strong demand among Lebanese employers for child workers and many are pressed into the worst forms of child labour.• Syrian refugee girls are increasingly forced into early marriages, especially in Bekaa Valley, Akkar (north Lebanon). While the family’s decision is commonly made to secure the girl’s economic future, there is a genuine risk that entering a marriage at such a vulnerable age could result in slavery.• Evidence strongly suggests that ‘survival sex’ and sexual exploitation is a growing issue for Syrian and Palestinian Syrian female refugees. Women can be forced or coerced into prostitution or providing ‘sexual favours’ to order to provide food and shelter for their families.• Forced labour is increasingly common as Syrian refugees become more desperate, so much so that it may even constitute the ‘new norm’. With surging prices for food and rent, coupled with the heavy costs associated with residency renewals, refugee families can quickly fall into debt. This leaves them even more vulnerable to exploitation.Despite highly sensational media coverage, we did not find any evidence of organ trafficking. Further, despite several high profile arrests by Lebanese authorities, our study did not find evidence of the facilitation of Syrian refugees across the border into Lebanon for the purpose of exploitation. Slavery and human trafficking should never be condoned or accepted as ‘the norm’. However, unless we act decisively, this is the grave risk facing Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Without  ignificant and determined intervention, the situation will only worsen. This report provides a set of targeted and integrated recommendations to counter slavery and human trafficking of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. The starting point is to ensure that Syrians fleeing conflict and persecution are properly recognised in Lebanon as refugees, that they can legally work and their children can go to school. It is also vital that tackling slavery and human trafficking is a shared priority among every organisation with a responsibility to assist Syrian refugees in the country. There is a paucity of data currently being collected to document slavery and trafficking of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. It is imperative that we improve data collection systems so that reliable information is available to guide the  evelopment of effective interventions. By taking concerted steps to address the factors that contribute to slavery and human trafficking, Lebanon will be better placed to manage the prolonged humanitarian crisis. It will also develop institutions, laws and policies that are more closely aligned with international human rights standards. This will deliver benefits for everyone within its borders and make it an example to other countries responding to the current refugee crisis.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • The Freedom Fund
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Kindhuwelijk
    • Kindbruid
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Vluchtelingen
    • Syrië
    • Gedwongen prostitutie
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • labour exploitation
    • Nederlands
  9. Taal Nederlands United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) The United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol is considered to be the principal, legally binding global instrument to combat trafficking in persons. It defines traffickin ...

    The United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol is considered to be the principal, legally binding global instrument to combat trafficking in persons. It defines trafficking in persons as constituting three elements: action, a "means" by which that action is achieved and a "purpose" (of the action / means): namely, exploitation. All three elements must be present to constitute ‘trafficking in persons’ except in relation to trafficking of children. The Protocol definition has been widely embraced by States and the international community. However, it has become evident that questions remain about certain aspects of the definition, most particularly those aspects that are not defined elsewhere in international law or commonly known to the world’s major legal systems. The risk that important concepts contained in the Protocol are not clearly understood and, therefore, are not consistently implemented and applied has been acknowledged by States Parties. Therefore it was recommended that UNODC would prepare a series of Issue Papers "to assist criminal justice officers in penal proceedings" on several concepts identified as problematic. The first Issue Paper, on the concept of 'abuse of a position of vulnerability and other 'means'' was completed and issued in 2012. The second study, which dealt with the issue of "consent" was completed and issued in 2014. The present study focuses on the third definitional concept identified as requiring attention: the concept of 'exploitation'.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
    • Overige uitbuiting
    • Strafrecht
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • labour exploitation
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels ECPAT International There are limits to what governments and law enforcement can do alone. But there is no limit to what governments, law enforcement, civil society and committed private sector partners can do together. Technolo ...

    There are limits to what governments and law enforcement can do alone. But there is no limit to what governments, law enforcement, civil society and committed private sector partners can do together.Technology is a force for good. Yet, there is a dark side. Technology also facilitates the exploitation of children and creates enforcement gaps. We have to change that. We have to catch up. We have to innovate. Technology is a central part of the challenge, but I believe that within technology resides the solution.

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • International
    • ECPAT International
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels

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