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  1. Taal Nederlands Sehr ausführliche Entscheidung des Schweizwerischen Bundesstrafgerichtes vom 1. Dezember 2011. Unter 2.6 bis 2.16 sind die relevanten, zum System gehörenden Verhaltensweisen bzw. Merkmale des Geschäftsmodells des Menschenhan ...

    Sehr ausführliche Entscheidung des Schweizwerischen Bundesstrafgerichtes vom 1. Dezember 2011.Unter 2.6 bis 2.16 sind die relevanten, zum System gehörenden Verhaltensweisen bzw. Merkmale des Geschäftsmodells des Menschenhandels ausführlich beschrieben."Vor dem Hintergrund der oben in E. 3.2 wiedergegebenen Tatbestandselemente ist als relevantes Beweisergebnis von den erwiesenen Elementen des Geschäftsmodells in E. 2.1 bis 2.16 für den Tatbestand des Menschenhandels Folgendes festzuhalten: Der Beschuldigte A1 hat in Brasilien junge Frauen aus zumeist sehr armem oder zumindest wirtschaftlich sehr schwierigem Umfeld für seine Bordelle rekrutieren lassen. Er hat diesen Frauen in der Folge die Reise in die Schweiz ermöglicht, indem er Geld überwies oder überweisen liess, für Pässe, den Kauf von Gepäckstücken und als Vorzeigegeld für die Einreise der Frauen als Touristinnen in die Schweiz; er liess ihnen Flugtickets organisieren und finanzierte die Reise vor. Zwar hat er die Frauen in Brasilien dafür nicht persönlich ausgesucht und engagiert, wiewohl sie häufig nach seinen Vorgaben rekrutiert wurden, sie waren aber ausnahmslos dazu bestimmt, in A1s Studios unter den von ihm diktierten Bedingungen der Prostitution nachzugehen. Dabei war die "Einwilligung" dieser Frauen rechtlich unwirksam: Die Einwilligung in diese Tätigkeit und in die illegale Überführung in die Schweiz zum Zeitpunkt ihrer Zusage, ist auf ihre schwierigen wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Herkunftsland zurückzuführen; aber auch die Einwilligung zum Zeitpunkt ihres Arbeitsbeginns bei A1 war nicht wirksam, weil sie auf freiheitsbeschränkenden Voraussetzungen im Sinne von E. 4.1 oben beruhte. Aufgrund der vorfinanzierten Reise und des auferlegten Schuldenabbausystems konnte A1 davon ausgehen, dass die Frauen die erwartete Tätigkeit auch ausüben würden, wenn sie dann einmal in der Schweiz angekommen waren. Indem A1 in einer Vielzahl von Fällen gleich gehandelt hat, hat er auch das mit dem Begriff des "Handel Treibens" verbundene Erfordernis der wiederholten Begehung erfüllt (vgl. Trechsel, Kurzkommentar zum Schweizerischen Strafgesetzbuch, 2. Auflage 1997, Art. 196 StGB N. 2). Schliesslich hat er mit diesem Handel, soweit man darin überhaupt ein Tatbestandserfordernis erblicken wollte, direkt wesentliche Geldsummen verdient und damit "gewerbsmässig" gehandelt: Gemäss seinem eigenen Konzept waren die überhöhten Schulden der Frauen, die diese zunächst mit den eigentlich ihnen zustehenden Einnahmen aus der Prostitution zurückzahlen mussten, im Zusammenhang mit der Reise entstanden, während die ihm zustehenden 50% der Einnahmen seinen Anteil am Prostitutionsgeschäft ausmachten. Die Frauen zahlten ihm im Ergebnis also nicht nur seine Auslagen für den Menschenhandel zurück, sondern darüber hinaus noch ein Honorar dafür. A1 hat mithin objektiv tatbestandsmässig gehandelt. Dass er auch in dieser Hinsicht mit Wissen und Willen, demnach vorsätzlich gehandelt hat, steht ausser Frage (vgl. auch oben E. 4.1.1). A1 hat sich mithin des Menschenhandels im Sinne von Art. 196 aStGB schuldig gemacht."Auch der Straftatbestand der Förderung der Prostitution wird ausführlich behandelt.

    Jurisprudentie

    • Jurisprudentie Internationaal
    • Schweiz
    • Etablissement
    • Prostitution
    • Menschenhandel
    • Bundesstrafgericht
    • Schweiz
    • Bordell
    • Duits
  2. Taal Engels Europol This report is updated annually and is intended to provide a general overview of Trafficking in Human Beings with a specific focus upon the European Union (EU). The first part of this report provides an overview of THB i ...

    This report is updated annually and is intended to provide a general overview of Trafficking in Human Beings with a specific focus upon the European Union (EU). The first part of this report provides an overview of THB in general; the second part describes more in detail the current and possible future situation regarding THB in the EU.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • European Union
    • Europol
    • Mensenhandel
    • Slachtofferschap
    • Europol
    • Verklaring
    • Engels
  3. Taal Onbepaald About 200,000 African children are susceptible to trafficking each year. Children are likely to be trafficked for prostitution, forced and domestic labour and early marriage. Trafficking is considered a violation of the right ...

    About 200,000 African children are susceptible to trafficking each year. Children are likely to be trafficked for prostitution, forced and domestic labour and early marriage. Trafficking is considered a violation of the rights of children in several African countries however, the poverty existing in households and the absence of social protection safety nets for vulnerable households, the high profits earned by traffickers for successfully delivering trafficked children to user destinations, and the low conviction rates for trafficking offences across African countries, have caused child trafficking to persist. Moreover, frameworks for addressing the issue of child trafficking are not grounded in the social, cultural, political and economic realities of the people vulnerable to the practice. It is expected that policies for addressing child trafficking should be based on the lived experiences of African children within the contexts of trafficking in their individual countries; rather than uniform frameworks for addressing trafficking or protecting children that are based on western notions of children, childhood, child protection and development. To ensure that policies adopted to combat child trafficking target and are suited to the needs of children and families vulnerable to the practice, this policy brief recommends that African countries adopt a child-centred approach that is built on encouraging the participation of affected children in decision making on trafficking, and reinforces the need for evidence-based research with trafficked children themselves that provides useful information for policy making.

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • Mali
    • Nigeria
    • West-Afrika
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Kinderarbeid
    • Kinderhandel
    • Engels
  4. Taal Onbepaald Human trafficking is largely a form of slavery. The international awareness of the crime has over the years increased. Nigeria is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking. This paper attempts to arti ...

    Human trafficking is largely a form of slavery. The international awareness of the crime has over the years increased. Nigeria is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking. This paper attempts to articulate the potential vulnerability of the victims, appraise the link between trafficking and human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic, assess the potency of the Nigeria legal instruments to curb human trafficking and recommend possible solutions. Because of unemployment, victims are frequently lured with promise to get a job with fat pay. Trafficking victims are exposed to unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners. They are also hired for pornography and bestiality. These experiences make them vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS and other female reproductive health challenges. The Nigeria local laws and the international conventions and protocols, which she is signatory to, all have legal potencies to curb trafficking. Therefore fighting trafficking in Nigeria is all encompassing because it requires a need for synergy of efforts to create public awareness of the crime, address the poverty situation in the country, create employment for the youths, reinforce relevant national laws, organize counseling, rehabilitation and reintegration programme for the victims and allow them access to government subsidized services for HIV/AIDS and other female reproductive health care programmes.

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • Nigeria
    • Aids
    • HIV
    • Engels
  5. Taal Onbepaald The phenomenon of the trafficking of women, especially of young girls and women into exploitative sexual and commercial labor, has recently begun to attract local, national and international attention from world leaders, acad ...

    The phenomenon of the trafficking of women, especially of young girls and women into exploitative sexual and commercial labor, has recently begun to attract local, national and international attention from world leaders, academics, the mass media, advocacy groups, the clergy and humanity in general. This is against the back drop of the fact that the trafficking of women has a number of far-reaching socio-economic, health and political consequences. Several factors, among them poverty, unemployment, ignorance and family size have been implicated as being reasons why women fall easy preys to the antics of traffickers. From available statistics, we can say that about 500,000 women are brought into the United States of America and Europe yearly for sexual and domestic servitude. Of the over 70,000 African victims of women trafficking, Nigerian women account for 70 percent of those trafficked to Italy alone. Fighting the menace requires a coordinated and concerted push from all stakeholders. This paper presents the causes and consequences of the trafficking of women from Nigeria to America and Europe. Empirical evidence indicates that the activities of traffickers, corrupt embassy officials, the country’s porous borders, poverty, refusal of victims to expose traffickers, delay in prosecuting apprehended culprits and biting youth unemployment have “conspired” to undermine the battle against the illicit trade. The paper makes far-reaching recommendations about how to mitigate the identified obstacles.

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • Nigeria
    • Prostitutie
    • Nigeriaanse madams
    • Armoede
    • Engels
  6. Taal Nederlands International Center for Research on Woman (ICRW) In dit rapport is een systematische review van preventieprogramma’s over kindhuwelijken gedocumenteerd. Op basis hiervan wordt er een analyse geboden voor oplossingen die haa ...

    In dit rapport is een systematische review van preventieprogramma’s over kindhuwelijken gedocumenteerd. Op basis hiervan wordt er een analyse geboden voor oplossingen die haalbaar zijn voor kindhuwelijken. De bevindingen tonen aan dat kindhuwelijken in aantal en in omvang is gestegen. Het grootste aantal van de programma’s is in Zuid-Azië, met name in Bangladesh en India.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International Center for Research on Woman (ICRW)
    • Kindhuwelijk
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Preventie
    • Kindhuwelijk
    • Kindbruid
    • Armoede
    • Engels
  7. 13 dec 2011

    Language Dutch 33 reads European Parliament Richtlijn 2011/29/EU van 13 december 2011 is er ter bestrijding van seksueel misbruik en seksuele uitbuiting van kinderen en kinderpornografie, en ter vervanging van kaderbesluit 2004/68/JBZ van de Raad.     I ( ...

    Richtlijn 2011/29/EU van 13 december 2011 is er ter bestrijding van seksueel misbruik en seksuele uitbuiting van kinderen en kinderpornografie, en ter vervanging van kaderbesluit 2004/68/JBZ van de Raad.  

    Wetgeving

    • Richtlijnen
    • Europees Parlement
    • Kinderpornografie
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Kinderporno(grafie)
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Minderjarigen
    • Nederlands
  8. Taal Engels Abstract: 'The rate of childhood trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation has been on the global rise. In order to prevent the continued increase of the number of at-risk children, integrative micro and macro leve ...

    Abstract:'The rate of childhood trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation has been on the global rise. In order to prevent the continued increase of the number of at-risk children, integrative micro and macro level models have been found to be most effective in terms of the prevention and intervention of human trafficking. The purpose of this paper is to tackle social aspects of child trafficking including the phenomenon of the feminization of trafficking, and the psychological consequences experienced by the child survivor. Effective psychotherapy that focuses on an integration of the self, interpersonal reparation, and cultural reintegration will be highlighted through prevalent trauma-focused models and clinical observations.'

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Trauma
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Posttraumatische Stressstoornis (PTSS)
    • Trauma
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Engels
  9. Taal Engels Abstract: 'Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influen ...

    Abstract:'Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influenced by a range of predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. Care plans for survivors of trafficking must be based on individual needs, and must apply clinical guidelines for the treatment of PTSD and of depression. Evidence is needed on the effectiveness of therapy for PTSD in survivors of human trafficking.  Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influenced by a range of predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. Care plans for survivors of trafficking must be based on individual needs, and must apply clinical guidelines for the treatment of PTSD and of depression. Evidence is needed on the effectiveness of therapy for PTSD in survivors of human trafficking.'

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Cambodja
    • Trauma
    • Behandeling (gespecialiseerde)
    • Zorg
    • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • Kinderhandel
    • Trauma
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels Method/abstract: 'Child sexual trafficking is a crime for which few “hard” facts are known or ascertainable, and for which the “known” facts are constantly changing. This paper describes the current situation of child victi ...

    Method/abstract:'Child sexual trafficking is a crime for which few “hard” facts are known or ascertainable, and for which the “known” facts are constantly changing. This paper describes the current situation of child victims of various types of sexual slavery in the volatile context of the U.S.-Mexico border. This project grew out of a partnership between directors of the Embrey Human Rights Program [EHRP] at Southern Methodist University and the Liaison for Training and Technical Assistance for the Southern Border Initiative [SBI] of the U.S. Department of Justice’s AMBER Alert Program. The mission of the EHRP is to educate students and others to promote and defend human rights around the world. SBI is a federal program designed to improve law enforcement capabilities and capacity related to the investigation and recovery of missing, endangered, abducted and exploited children in the U.S.-Mexico border region. This paper is based on personal knowledge of SBI personnel, discussions with law enforcement, police reports, case studies, media reports, government documents from both the United States and Mexico, and EHRP research in Tucson, Arizona conducted in January, 2011.'

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Mexico
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Grensbewaking
    • Kinderhandel
    • Kindersekstoerisme
    • Engels

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