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  • trafficked underaged victims
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  1. Language Dutch 28 reads Europol Europol functions as a centre of expertise for strategic and operational intelligence and as an information hub for criminal data concerning the most threatening OCGs active in the EU. Europol provides operational support t ...

    Europol functions as a centre of expertise for strategic and operational intelligence and as an information hub for criminal data concerning the most threatening OCGs active in the EU. Europol provides operational support to MS law enforcement authorities. The EU Strategy 2012-2016 outlined specific tools through which Europol can assist MS’ investigative activities and persecution of traffickers. These include the enhancing of the intelligence picture on criminal phenomena and the training of specific law enforcement units and experts.This latest report of Europol is descriptive and oriented towards explaining the current crime situation providing an overview of all relevant factors (OCGs, criminal markets, and geographical dimension): the definitions of human trafficking, the push-, pull and the facilitating factors, the modus operandi of the traffickers concerning sexual exploitation as well as labour exploitation, forced sham marriages and forced criminality.Key findings of the report:Trafficking in human beings (THB) in the EU is predominantly a European affair. 70% of the identified victims and suspects in the EU are EU nationals.Victims and suspects generally share nationality, ethnic ties and sometimes kinship links.Mobility and rotation of victims are key features within this criminal market. Austria is a crucial transit country, especially for victims originating from Central Eastern Europe. Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom are key entry points for non-EU victims.A vast majority of the criminal groups active in THB are capable of controlling the entire process of trafficking, from the recruitment of victims to the reinvestment of the criminal proceeds. While most traffickers are male, female suspects are also involved in low-ranking tasks. Nigerian criminal networks form an exception where women play a central role in the exploitation process.The typical structure of criminal groups engaged in THB consists of loose networks linked by kinship or ethnic ties.Criminal proceeds are primarily sent back to their country of origin.Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is the most reported form of THB in the EU. Most reported victims are female EU nationals from Central and Eastern Europe.Non-EU victims mainly originate from Albania, Brazil, China, Nigeria, and Vietnam.EU victims usually use genuine documents, while non-EU victims use forged or look-alike documents.Deception is commonly used to lure potential victims, including the lover boy method.Human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation is increasingly being investigated. Most reported victims are male EU nationals originating from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic Estonia, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.The majority of non-EU victims come from countries bordering the EU (i.e. Albania, Moldova, Morocco, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine) and to a lesser extent from China, India, Iraq, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.The exploitation tends to take place in labour intensive and/or under-regulated industries such as the agricultural sector, the construction industry and hotel/restaurant/catering businesses.Trafficked workers use legitimate identification documents and often have legitimate permits which expire over time.Other forms of THB identified in the EU are for the purposes of forced begging, forced criminality and forced sham marriage. Traffickers involved in forced criminality (i.e.‘smash and grab’ theft, purse snatching, metal theft, pick pocketing and fraud, drug production and drug trafficking) and begging deliberately target vulnerable groups.Women have been forced to engage in marriages of convenience, in order to provide the legal right of stay to non-EU (third-country) nationals. 

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    • European Union
    • Europol
    • Sexual exploitation
    • forced criminality
    • forced sham marriages
    • trafficked underaged victims
    • labour exploitation
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