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  1. Taal Nederlands Abstract:   Since the 1980s, the demand for organs available for transplantation is far outpacing the supply, with kidney transplant waiting lists growing most prominently. Although the buying and selling of organs is prohib ...

    Abstract: Since the 1980s, the demand for organs available for transplantation is far outpacing the supply, with kidney transplant waiting lists growing most prominently. Although the buying and selling of organs is prohibited worldwide with the exception of Iran, the organ shortage has driven patients from industrialized countries in need of ... read more a kidney transplantation to developing countries where poor individuals are willing to ‘donate’ a kidney in exchange for money. The organ scarcity has generated a highly profitable black market where illicit acts and means are applied for the purpose of exploitation; i.e. human trafficking for the purpose of organ removal. Due to the complex nature of the criminal activities, which require compatible patients and donors, transplant surgeons and an operating theatre, the organ trade is said to involve globally active and well-organized criminal networks. However, literature supporting this claim is scarce; there is a critical lack of evidence-based research regarding the crime’s organizational model. The aim of this study was to contribute to criminological research by addressing this knowledge gap through a close examination of relevant criminal cases, which are limited in number worldwide but shed a light on the entire human trafficking process, in order to provide an answer to the following central research question: How does the interaction between the prohibition and the demand and supply of human organs for transplantation shape the mechanisms and organizational model of human trafficking for the purpose of organ removal? With support of QSR*NVIVO software three criminal cases have been analysed by studying 31 court documents and interviewing 45 respondents, mainly law enforcement officials and defense lawyers in South Africa, the United States, Kosovo and Israel. As secondary sources, four documentaries which disclose valuable information about the cases have been included, as well as the recordings of two expert meetings on human trafficking for the purpose of organ removal. The results show that recipients and donors have been exploited using illicit acts and means with the purpose of organ removal by loose, flexible combinations of numerous organized criminal networks and actors that have joined forces to facilitate illegal kidney transplants on a global level in an extremely well-organized manner. Although the prohibition of the organ trade have been enacted to inhibit profiteering and human trafficking, the rising demand of organs since has generated a highly profitable and exploitative underground transplant industry, which indicates that criminalization is more likely to have reinforced trafficking. The organization of the crime is a dynamic process, resulting from the interaction of illegal market dynamics, skills and networks of the offenders and legal control efforts. Due to local inadequate existing legal frameworks and a lack of knowledge and experience regarding the offence on the judicial level, enforcement is practically non-existent or has led to tactical and spatial crime displacement. A continuing high demand for transplantable organs will make it difficult to restrain the underground market by means of repressive action, whereas some form of regulation may result in lower crime and victimization rates by tackling the organ scarcity. By Jessica de Jong, 2017 

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Human Trafficking
    • organtrade
    • Mensenhandel
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Nederlands
  2. Taal Onbepaald Europese Commissie This paper complements the first European Commission Report on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in human beings as required under article 20 of Directive 2011/36/EU1 (hereafter "the R ...

    This paper complements the first European Commission Report on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in human beings as required under article 20 of Directive 2011/36/EU1 (hereafter "the Report"). It aims to provide a factual overview of the main current trends, actions, and statistical data on trafficking in human beings in the EU, as reported by Member States, civil society and international organisations.The paper elaborates on the topics presented in the Report in selected areas of the ‘three Ps’, prosecution (with focus on financial investigations), protection (with focus on the setting up of national referral mechanisms) and prevention (with focus on actions taken by Member States to prevent the crime as provided by Article 18 of the Anti-trafficking Directive4).For the accompanying report click here.

    Wetgeving

    • Voorstellen en rapporten van de Europese Commissie
    • Europese Commissie
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Criminele uitbuiting
    • Schijnhuwelijk
    • Adoptie
    • Engels
  3. Taal Onbepaald 5 Europese Commissie Report from the commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Report on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in human beings (2016) as required under Article 20 of Directive 2011/36/ ...

    Report from the commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Report on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in human beings (2016) as required under Article 20 of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims.This report focuses on issues that highlight the comprehensive approach of the anti-trafficking Directive and the EU Strategy. In particular, it examines the progress made on the implementation of ‘the three Ps’, prosecution (with a focus on financial investigations), protection (with a focus on setting up national referral mechanisms) and prevention (with a focus on action taken by Member States to prevent the crime as provided by Article 18 of the Anti-Trafficking Directive).For the Commission Staff Working Document click here.

    Wetgeving

    • Voorstellen en rapporten van de Europese Commissie
    • Europese Commissie
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Criminele uitbuiting
    • Schijnhuwelijk
    • Adoptie
    • Engels
  4. Language Dutch 3 reads Harvard FXB Center Executive Summary This report provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of the Indian government’s efforts to rescue and reintegrate children trafficked for their labor. Despite frequent expressions of public ...

    Executive SummaryThis report provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of the Indian government’s efforts to rescue and reintegrate children trafficked for their labor. Despite frequent expressions of public concern, the government’s main responses to this entrenched problem have not been carefully evaluated to date. As a result, no metrics for gauging reintegration success have been developed, nor is there a process for evaluating the impact of interventions over time. This paper measures existing legal and policy frameworks against current realities, based on empirical findings from a qualitative study carried out by the FXB Center for Health & Human Rights at Harvard University. The survey undergirding the study produced rich data from interviews with 49 governmental and non-governmental actors in three North Indian states: the trafficking source state of Bihar, the transit state of Delhi, and the trafficking destination state of Rajasthan. The results reveal tartling inconsistency between policy commitments and on-the-ground realities. Raids of workplaces that rely on forced child labor are executed with  ariable levels of success and attention to the best interests of trafficked child laborers. A lack of detailed standard operating procedures and centralized  nformation systems leads to confusion around responsibilities, as well as reactive, poorly planned raids that are often overly dependent on nonprofit leadership. The quality of immediate ostrescue care delivered is also inconsistent: children do not receive adequate medical or counseling support and are often subjected to multiple interviews about their experience. Legally mandated and essential First Information Reports, prepared by the police to initiate criminal proceedings, are sporadically filed and victimizers are rarely prosecuted.Existing reintegration frameworks also fail to protect children’s rights and needs. They do not comprehensively address the diverse post-rescue needs of  trafficked children. Rather, despite incontrovertible evidence to the contrary, they treat reintegration as a fixed, short-term process. The significant and complex risks facing trafficked children following return to their families are not carefully addressed and standards for gauging what counts as appropriate alternative accommodation are lacking. Education programs work in isolation from formal schools and do not adequately address the curricular and teacher training issues that reintegration of trafficked children raise. Children who have never had an opportunity to attend school consistently need dedicated services to facilitate their integration into a system of learning; and their families need structured and ongoing support to mitigate the risk that a child will be re-trafficked for economic reasons. Instead, at present, the challenge of supporting the family’s economic reintegration is, at best, reduced to the provision of lump sum compensation.  Finally, the acute health needs of rescued children, both physical and psychological, are acknowledged as an afterthought, without concrete policy initiatives to ensure delivery of suitable services. This report outlines several overarching challenges to the successful rescue and reintegration of children trafficked for labor: failure to provide adequate reintegration services; a focus on short term rescue from child labor in place of systemic child welfare approaches; organizational failures including lack of clear accountability, inter-agency coordination and training; poorly structured NGOgovernment partnerships; insufficient human and financial resources; lack of centralized information systems; and weak policy frameworks. The report concludes by making several recommendations to address these gaps. One critical recommendation is an insistence on the prioritization of a child rights approach to intervention, so that the child’s best interests and views are always a primary consideration. Another overarching recommendation highlights the imperative of instituting comprehensive and sustained reintegration efforts instead of perpetuating the current short term approach that simply returns trafficked children to circumstances that led to trafficking in the first place. This analysis should form the basis for future research, debate and, most important, concrete reforms to protect children from exploitation. Trafficking for forced labor constitutes a gross violation of rights that affects hundreds of thousands of Indian children every year. It is the government’s obligation to ensure an end to these abusive practices and to institute sustained interventions that deliver access to health, education and financial security for these children and their families.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • India
    • Harvard FXB Center
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Child sex tourism
    • Child trafficking
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Nederlands
  5. Taal Engels Abstract: 'This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplina ...

    Abstract:'This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.'

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Internationaal
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Gevolgen mensenhandel
    • Bescherming autoriteiten
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Slachtofferschap
    • Engels
  6. Taal Engels Abstract 'Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as ...

    Abstract'Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role-and legal and ethical obligations-of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered.'

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Internationaal
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Slachtofferschap
    • Medische behandeling
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Geestelijke gezondheidszorg (GGZ)
    • Engels
  7. Taal Engels The HOTT project, which combats trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal, is the first EU-funded project against this 'new' and neglected form of trafficking in human beings. An increasing number of indi ...

    The HOTT project, which combats trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal, is the first EU-funded project against this 'new' and neglected form of trafficking in human beings. An increasing number of indications emerge from countries across the globe on trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. Many countries have implemented adequate legislation against it, yet its non-legislative response is practically nonexistent. The project aims to increase knowledge and information, raise awareness about the crime and improve its non-legislative response.The latest report of this project shows indicators of trafficked persons with the purpose of organ removal, that are based on empirical research data that has been collected under the HOTT project. The sources from which these indicators have been derived from: interviews with police, prosecutors, recipients and transplant professionals; recipients’ and victims’ testimonies and judgments of prosecuted cases.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Internationaal
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Georganiseerd verband
    • Indications for investigation
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Engels
  8. Taal Nederlands 3 Staatssecretaris V&J Vragen van het lid Gesthuizen (SP) aan de Staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie over het onderzoeken van signalen van mensensmokkel. Deze vragen zijn gesteld naar aanleiding van de uitzending ...

    Vragen van het lid Gesthuizen (SP) aan de Staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie over het onderzoeken van signalen van mensensmokkel. Deze vragen zijn gesteld naar aanleiding van de uitzending van Argos, OneWorld, Radio Bremen op zaterdag 12 september inzake het overlijden van Kahsay Mekonen. 

    Overheidspublicaties

    • Kamervragen
    • Staatssecretaris V&J
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Asielzoekerscentrum (AZC)
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Mensensmokkel
    • Nederlands
  9. Taal Engels United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) UNODC recently launched its ' Regional Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants in West and Central Africa'. These two regions are conside ...

    UNODC recently launched its 'Regional Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants in West and Central Africa'. These two regions are considered points of origin, transit and destination for victims of human trafficking and smuggling of migrants. The new Regional Strategy aims to assist the affected countries in dismantling the criminal networks while at the same time protecting the victims of these crimes.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Internationaal
    • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
    • Mensensmokkel
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • mig
    • Vluchteling
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Engels
  10. Language Dutch 2 reads Police In dit verkennend onderzoeksrapport worden de bevindingen besproken van een onderzoek naar incidenten op het gebied van orgaanhandel en mensenhandel met het oogmerk van orgaanverwijdering met betrekking tot Nederland, met het ...

    In dit verkennend onderzoeksrapport worden de bevindingen besproken van een onderzoek naar incidenten op het gebied van orgaanhandel en mensenhandel met het oogmerk van orgaanverwijdering met betrekking tot Nederland, met het doel inzicht in en kennis over deze vorm van criminaliteit te vergroten. Om de bevindingen in een breder perspectief te plaatsen is ook aandacht besteed aan opsporingsonderzoeken en vervolgingen die de afgelopen vijftien jaar in andere Europese landen hebben plaatsgevonden.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Politie
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Mensenhandel
    • Orgaanhandel
    • Nederlands

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