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  1. Taal Nederlands Center for the Study of Democracy Het doel van deze studie was het verkrijgen van meer inzicht in de financiering van mensenhandel, waarbij de volgende 9 Europese landen werden bestudeerd: België, Bulgarije, Italië, Duitslan ...

    Het doel van deze studie was het verkrijgen van meer inzicht in de financiering van mensenhandel, waarbij de volgende 9 Europese landen werden bestudeerd: België, Bulgarije, Italië, Duitsland, Frankrijk, Nederland, Roemenië, Spanje en het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Specifiek werd gelet op de geldbronnen en kosten van mensenhandelaren, hun financieringsmechanismen en de verdeling van de winst verkregen uit mensenhandel. Deze studie richt zich voornamelijk op de financiering van arbeidsuitbuiting en seksuele uitbuiting.Een eerder onderzoek van het CSD (2015), dat zich niet specifiek op mensenhandel richtte, bracht al naar voren dat er drie financiële mechanismen zijn waar de georganiseerde misdaad gebruik van maakt: (1) herinvestering van de winst; (2) het lenen van geld van derden; (3) het gebruik van legitieme financiële hulpmiddelen.De studie ‘Financing of Organized Crime’ maakte gebruik van verschillende onderzoeksmethoden: een literatuuronderzoek, bijna 200 semigestructureerde interviews, rapporten van de politie en van de media. Uit het onderzoek bleek dat ‘social capital’ (connecties en relaties) en ‘symbolic capital’ (vertrouwen en reputatie) erg belangrijk zijn voor mensenhandelaren, aangezien deze vormen van capital er voor kunnen zorgen dat de kosten van de mensenhandelaren aanzienlijk lager komen te liggen. Verder kwam uit het onderzoek dat wanneer mensenhandelaren zich voor het eerst binnen het criminele circuit bevinden, social capital vaak zelfs belangrijker is dan financiële investeringen.Over het algemeen lijkt arbeidsuitbuiting minder kosten met zich mee te brengen dan seksuele uitbuiting. In beide gevallen wordt meestal eerder gebruik gemaakt van contant geld in plaats van bankoverschrijvingen, omdat die laatste makkelijker te traceren zijn. Specifiek in Nederland lijkt het geld dat verdiend wordt aan mensenhandel vrijwel direct weer uitgegeven te worden, bijvoorbeeld door het te investeren in onroerend goed.Een van de aanbevelingen van de onderzoekers naar aanleiding van deze studie is dat de financiering van mensenhandel een belangrijkere rol zou moeten spelen bij het bestrijden van mensenhandel. Volgens de onderzoekers zou het traceren van de financiering van mensenhandel namelijk kunnen leiden tot nieuwe aanknopingspunten in het politieonderzoek.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Frankrijk
    • Duitsland
    • Nederland
    • Roemenië
    • Spanje
    • Verenigd Koninkrijk
    • België
    • Bulgarije
    • Italië
    • Center for the Study of Democracy
    • Financiering
    • Mensenhandel
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Engels
  2. Taal Engels   Report by UNICEF and International Organization for Migration (IOM)   Summary: "For children and youth on the move via the Mediterranean Sea routes to Europe, the journey is marked by high levels of abuse, trafficking and ...

     Report by UNICEF and International Organization for Migration (IOM) Summary: "For children and youth on the move via the Mediterranean Sea routes to Europe, the journey is marked by high levels of abuse, trafficking and exploitation. Some are more vulnerable than others: those travelling alone, those with low levels of education and those undertaking longer journeys." This UNICEF and International Organization for Migration (IOM) analysis gives insight in the journeys of 11,000 migrant and refuge children as recorded in their responses to the Displacement Tracking Matrix Flow Monitoring Surveys conducted by IOM along the Central and Eastern Mediterranean routes to Europe in 2016 and 2017. Where the analysis reveals that adolescents and youth on the move are more vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation than adults, these risks are particularly high for those who move from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, it turns out that adolescents and youth who travel alone are also at higher risk of trafficking and exploitation. The analysis also shows that adolescents with lower levels of education are more vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. To emphasize the urgent need of action in a world with a growing number of migrants, the following is addressed:    "To protect the most vulnerable among those on the move, UNICEF and IOM call for a multi-pronged strategy that addresses the interplay of factors that expose migrant and refugee children and youth to risk – or help keep them safe. Such a strategy includes expanding safe and regular migration channels to dampen the demand for smugglers, while fighting trafficking and exploitation. To enhance the resilience and protect the rights of children and youth, it entails investing in education and other basic services, coordinating child protection efforts across countries, and fighting racism and xenophobia in the countries migrants and refugees travel through and the ones in which they seek to make their lives."   

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • youth
    • Unicef
    • trafficking
    • exploitation
    • IOM
    • Migration
    • Children
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels James Cockayne United Nations University Abstract by author:   Human trafficking is both illegal and big business. The International Labour Organization estimates that forced labour, one of the forms of exploitation into which h ...

    Abstract by author: Human trafficking is both illegal and big business. The International Labour Organization estimates that forced labour, one of the forms of exploitation into which humans are trafficked, generates $150 billion a year in revenues, while the Global Slavery Index suggests there may be as many as 45.8 million people enslaved today. Most of the victims are women and girls. The funds generated by human trafficking are proceeds of crime. Handling those funds can constitute money laundering or, in certain cases where designated terrorist organizations are involved, terrorist financing. Financial institutions that handle funds generated by human trafficking and modern slavery, or that finance businesses that engage in these crimes, thus risk violating a range of existing laws and norms, especially in the area of anti-money laundering (AML) and countering the financing of terrorism (CFT). To help industry actors and regulators think through their options for disrupting ties between the financial sector and human trafficking and modern slavery, UN University convened a workshop at Grace Farms in New Canaan, Connecticut, with the support of the Permanent Mission of Liechtenstein to the United Nations. Participants identified three main areas for action: strengthening sectoral knowledge uptake; improving regulation and encouraging leadership; and promoting information partnerships.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International
    • James Cockayne
    • United Nations University
    • modern slavery
    • financial sector
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  4. Language English 1 read Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Annex to the Response of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the list of issues (CAT/C/NLD/QPR/7) transmitted to the State Party under the optional reporting pro ...

    Annex to the Response of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the list of issues (CAT/C/NLD/QPR/7) transmitted to the State Party under the optional reporting procedure (A/62/44, paras. 23 and 24)

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Netherlands
    • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Torture
    • Human Rights
    • Engels
  5. Taal Engels United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) From executive summary:   Millions of children are on the move across international borders – fleeing violence and conflict, disaster or poverty, in pursuit of a better life. Hundreds ...

    From executive summary: Millions of children are on the move across international borders – fleeing violence and conflict, disaster or poverty, in pursuit of a better life. Hundreds of thousands move on their own. When they encounter few opportunities to move legally, children resort to dangerous routes and engage smugglers to help them cross borders. Serious gaps in the laws, policies and services meant to protect children on the move further leave them bereft of protection and care. Deprived, unprotected, and often alone, children on the move can become easy prey for traffickers and others who abuse and exploit them.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International
    • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Migrant Children
    • Violence Against Children
    • Engels
  6. Taal Engels Laura Cordisco Tsai Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta Abstract: Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide f ...

    Abstract:Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide financially for their families, challenges securing employment, lack of savings, and familial debt. Few evaluations have been conducted of reintegration support interventions addressing financial vulnerability among trafficking survivors. In this article, we present findings from a participatory assessment of the BARUG program, a matched savings and financial capability program for survivors of human trafficking and their family members in the Philippines. Photovoice was used to understand the experiences of two cohorts of BARUG participants. Survivors collaborated with research team members in conducting thematic analysis of transcripts from the photovoice sessions. Themes included: the positive emotional impact of financial wellness, overcoming the challenges of saving, applying financial management skills in daily decision making, developing a habit of savings, building a future-oriented mindset, receiving guidance and enlightenment, the learning process, and the change process. Findings reinforce the importance of interventions to support trafficked persons and their family members in getting out of debt and accumulating emergency savings, while also providing emotional support to survivors in coping with family financial pressures. The study also highlights the value of using participatory research methods to understand the experiences of trafficked persons.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena
    • Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta
    • Laura Cordisco Tsai
    • Human Trafficking Survivors
    • Engels
  7. Taal Nederlands The European Court of Human Rights In deze zaak heeft het ECHR uitspraak gedaan over een zaak die gaat over dwangarbeid en uitbuiting van 42 Bangladeshe nationals die in Griekenland woonden en werkten op een boerderij in Man ...

    In deze zaak heeft het ECHR uitspraak gedaan over een zaak die gaat over dwangarbeid en uitbuiting van 42 Bangladeshe nationals die in Griekenland woonden en werkten op een boerderij in Manolada, Griekenland. Zij moesten van hun werkgevers de hele dag aardbeien plukken onder moeilijke fysieke omstandigheden en onder toezicht van gewapende bewakers, terwijl zij niet betaald kregen hiervoor. Het Europese Hof concludeerde dat er op basis van de werkomstandigheden en op basis van de uitbuitingsituatie sprake was van mensenhandel. Aangezien sprake was van arbeidsuitbuiting oordeelde de staat dat er sprake was van een schending van artikel 4 §2 van the European Convention on Human Rights: the prohibition of forced labour."Decision of the Court: The Court held that there had been a violation of Article 4 §2 of the Convention on account of the State's failure to fulfil its positive obligations under that provision, namely to prevent the human trafficking situation complained of, to protect the victims, to conduct an effective investigation into the offences and to punish those responsible for the trafficking. "

    Jurisprudentie

    • Jurisprudentie Internationaal
    • The European Court of Human Rights
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Arbeidsuitbuiting
    • Artikel 4 EVRM
    • Engels
  8. Taal Engels Howard Dubowitz Abstract by author: The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention ...

    Abstract by author:The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) has conducted surveillance of child maltreatment and child protection every two years, published in World Perspectives on Child Abuse. It is hoped that up to date information will inform the development of laws, policies and programs to better address child abuse and neglect. This article is based on data on child sexual abuse and exploitation from 73 countries gathered online in 2015-16 for the 12 edition of World Perspectives. Respondents were key informants who were knowledgeable professionals in the child protection field. They were encouraged to consult with colleagues so as to provide accurate information. Countries were grouped into different regions of the world and into income level categories. The findings focus on definitions of abuse and neglect, laws, policies and programs to address and prevent maltreatment and barriers to prevention. It is evident that there is considerable variability across regions and country income categories, and that programs and services need to be considerably strengthened, even in high income countries.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Howard Dubowitz
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Prevention
    • Engels
  9. Taal Engels FXB Center for Health and Human Rights Harvard University From executive summary:   The present study analyzes the risk factors responsible for the exposure of migrant and refugee children to physical, psychological, and sexual ...

    From executive summary: The present study analyzes the risk factors responsible for the exposure of migrant and refugee children to physical, psychological, and sexual violence and exploitation in Greece in the context of the ongoing migrant humanitarian crisis. It documents sexual and physical abuse of children inside migrant camps and reports new information about the commercial sexual exploitation of migrant children in the main cities of Greece. This research also explores the existing gaps and challenges in intervention efforts that contribute to victimization of migrant children.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Greece
    • FXB Center for Health and Human Rights
    • Harvard University
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Health
    • Human Rights
    • Migrant Children
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels Allison J. Luzwick Abstract The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) was passed to “combat trafficking in persons, a contemporary manifestation of slavery whose victims are predominantly women and children, to ensur ...

    AbstractThe Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) was passed to “combat trafficking in persons, a contemporary manifestation of slavery whose victims are predominantly women and children, to ensurejust and effective punishment of traffickers, and to protect their victims.”Since the passing of the Act, federal courts have construed the statute broadly to achieve this stated purpose. One way in which the TVPA has been underutilized, however, is in prosecuting pornography cases. Pornography enjoys wide latitude under the law, protected by a vast net of First Amendment protections. While these protections may preserve freedom of speech, they do nothing to protect adult victims who are trafficked to produce online pornographic media. To provide relief for these victims and better fight all types of domestic trafficking, prosecutors should use the sex trafficking provision of the TVPA, 18 U.S.C. § 1591, to prosecute sex trafficking within the pornography industry. The pattern of victimization, other national and international human trafficking directives, plain language of the TVPA, prior cases, and broader policy goals all support the argument that the TVPA can and should be used to address the problem of trafficking adult victims for the production of porn.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Allison J. Luzwick
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels

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