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  1. Taal Engels Britteny Pfleger Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016) Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19 Intro ...

    Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016)Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19Introduction by author:The residents of Lebanon, Missouri, a small town in the southern part of the state, certainly did not believe their kind, generous neighbors were in fact sadistic slave owners.1 Yet such brutality existed, lurking beneath one such family’s gentle and caring façade.2 In what was later described as the most horrific case of sex trafficking ever prosecuted in the state, a resident couple housed a mentally deficient runaway teenage girl with a troubled past and forced her to sign a never-ending sex-slave contract.3 “Master Ed” branded his victim with a bar code tattoo, marking her as his property, and forced her to have sex with him and several “customers.”4 Over the next six years, Master Ed subjected the girl to waterboarding, electrocution, and beatings.5 He repeatedly threatened his victim with a gun, exhibiting his ability to kill her if she did not comply.6 The trafficking was not discovered until 2009, when the victim went into cardiac arrest after one of Master Ed’s torture sessions, resulting in her hospitalization and emergency treatment.7 While the circumstances in the Lebanon case were especially horrific, the practice of sex trafficking is not unique. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (“NHTRC”) reported 4136 cases of sex trafficking in the United States in 2015,8 including 155 cases in Missouri between 2013 and 2015.9 To combat these alarming statistics, Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (“TVPA”) in 2000 to “ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers.”10 The TVPA criminalizes the trafficking of people in the commercial sex industry by force, fraud, or coercion.11 A conviction under this statute subjects a defendant to a minimum of fifteen years in federal prison.12 Separately, Congress authorized federal prosecutors to charge defendants who possess a gun while committing a “crime of violence” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c).13 A conviction under this statute is punishable by at least five years, served in addition to the underlying crime of violence.14 To convict a defendant under § 924(c), prosecutors must show (1) the defendant possessed or used a gun in the commission of his or her crime and (2) the crime committed is characterized as a “crime of violence.”15 Prior to 2015, federal courts agreed the sex trafficking of minors was a “crime of violence.”16 however, in August 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit went against this trend, declaring sex trafficking of an adult victim not to be a crime of violence.17 This Note analyzes the Fourth Circuit’s opinion in United States v. Fuertes, ultimately concluding that, contrary to the decision in Fuertes, sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). Part II of this Note details the acts of German Ventura, a defendant charged with sex trafficking and possession of a gun during a crime of violence. Part III explores the purpose of § 924(c) and courts’ interpretations of “crime of violence”; it then considers federal circuit courts’ bases for finding sex trafficking under the TVPA to be a violent crime under a variety of statutes. Part IV summarizes the Fourth Circuit’s decision to depart from established precedent. Part V scrutinizes the court’s theory that sex trafficking cannot be a violent crime, ultimately resolving that, while sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence, Congress must change the statute to expressly reflect the violent nature of sex trafficking.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Britteny Pfleger
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Crime of Violence
    • Engels
  2. Taal Engels Sandra Wann University of Houston-Clear Lake Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926 Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work: http://gradworks.proquest.com/103 ...

    Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work:http://gradworks.proquest.com/10307926.pdfAbstract by author:Human trafficking has recently risen to become the second largest organized crime world-wide. Also, commonly referred to as "modern day slavery," this international crime exposes our inherent criminal justice issues due to linkage blindness and the marginalization of victims. The problem is not the absence of laws, but rather a systemic breakdown in basic communication among those entrusted with the duty to protect and serve. Law enforcement apprehends and the criminal justice system prosecutes the victims of this heinous enterprise instead of pursuing justice on their behalf. The marginalization of the victims of this horrific crime further serves to compound the misery suffered by those unfortunate enough to be caught in the snare of modern day slavery, which plaques our globe and threatens our humanity. Although human trafficking includes trafficking for forced labor, trafficking in commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism, and trafficking in organs, this paper will focus on trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation.  

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Sandra Wann
    • University of Houston-Clear Lake
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels Paul O Bello Adewale A Olutola Abstract by authors: This article evaluates the current community-policing initiative in response to human trafficking in South Africa. Though community policing is evident in policing operations i ...

    Abstract by authors:This article evaluates the current community-policing initiative in response to human trafficking in South Africa. Though community policing is evident in policing operations in the country, in recent times it has practically lost its face value and somehow has become unconvincing, particularly in response to human trafficking. Despite its global construction, human trafficking has been a resonating problem in South Africa. Its impacts have generated a myriad concerns, most of which revolve around the ineffectiveness of current policing tactics in combating its scourge. Profoundly, human trafficking often flourishes where there are gaps in social control especially due to asymmetric relationships between the police and the public in a dynamic milieu. This article is drawn from an analysis of a broader doctoral study on examining human trafficking and the response of the South African criminal justice system, and it utilises the mixed methods approach. Findings from this study suggest that for an effective or result-oriented approach, current community-based counter-trafficking strategies in South Africa need to be reviewed to embrace and reflect the true ideals of community policing initiatives.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • South Africa
    • Paul O Bello
    • Adewale A Olutola
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  4. Language English 1 read Simon Hedlin Simon Hedlin, Can Prostitution Law Reform Curb Sex Trafficking? Theory and Evidence on Scale Substitution, and Replacement Effects, 50 U. Mich. J. L. Reform 329 (2016). Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjl ...

    Simon Hedlin, Can Prostitution Law Reform Curb Sex Trafficking? Theory and Evidence on Scale Substitution, and Replacement Effects, 50U. Mich. J. L. Reform 329 (2016).Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjlr/vol50/iss2/3By author: Sex trafficking, a pervasive problem in many parts of the world, has become increasingly salient to policymakers and the general public. Activists, politicians, and scholars continue to engage in debates about how best to curb it. This Article discusses one especially contentious dimension of these debates: does banning prostitution reduce sex trafficking? Or is legalizing prostitution the optimal approach? Or is there a third, better way? Proceeding both theoretically and empirically, this Article seeks to cast light on the relationship between different types of prostitution laws and the prevalence of sex trafficking and human trafficking. It attempts to make three contributions to the literature. First, it builds on existing theories of the link between the demand for purchased sex and the supply of sex-trafficking victims to create a simple ordinal measure of prostitution laws. This measure, which the Article dubs the Prostitution Law Index (PLI), captures not only whether prostitution overall is legal or illegal, but whether buying sex is legal or illegal and whether selling sex is legal or illegal, which better reflects the actual cross-country variation in prostitution laws. The PLI takes into account scale, substitution, and replacement effects in the market for prostitution, where scale refers to increases in the prevalence of trafficking that are caused by growth of the overall market for prostitution; substitution to decreases in trafficking caused by current consumers who purchase sex with trafficking victims and, based on the risk of criminal sanction, shift to instead purchasing sex with individuals who voluntarily sell sex, thereby crowding out trafficking victims; and replacement to decreases in trafficking caused by new voluntary sellers of sex who, incentivized by changes in prostitution laws, enter the market and crowd out trafficking victims. The PLI ranks prostitution laws across countries on a four-point scale (from 1 to 4), based on their expected effectiveness (from least to most effective) in reducing sex trafficking. Second, the study uses a recent dataset provided by the European Union to map the statistical relationship between PLI scores and prevalence of sex trafficking, based on the Article’s theory of scale, substitution, and replacement effects. The analysis suggests that there generally is an inverse relationship between a country’s PLI score and the prevalence of trafficking in that country. Greater legislative efforts to reduce scale and to increase substitution and replacement appear, on average, to be associated with lower levels of sex trafficking. Third, the Article presents a basic Difference-in-Differences analysis—on the basis of extremely limited data and thus with an unusually large number of caveats— of Norway’s 2009 prostitution law reform. Tentative results indicate that the Norwegian reform, which made it legal to sell but illegal to buy sex, may potentially have helped reduce the prevalence of trafficking there. 

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • European Union
    • Simon Hedlin
    • Prostitution
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  5. A. Bos K. Loyens V. Nagy B. Oude Breuil Universiteit Utrecht- Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) Universiteit Utrecht- Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen WODC Taal Nederlands Samenvatting WODC: In 2011 i ...

    Samenvatting WODC:In 2011 is   het landelijke programma Aanpak uitbuiting Roma kinderen in een samenwerkingsverband tussen het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie (VenJ) en het ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid (SZW) gestart. In 2014 is het programma verlengd tot eind 2016. Gedurende de programmaperiode komt naar voren dat de integrale aanpak van criminele uitbuiting van minderjarigen moeilijk lijkt. Vanuit dit programma wil men meer inzicht krijgen in de aard en de omvang van criminele uitbuiting van (Roma) kinderen. De onderzoeksvraag is verbreed naar alle kinderen die zich in Nederland bevinden.Dit onderzoekrapport gaat over uitbuiting van minderjarigen in de criminaliteit in Nederland. Het rapport beschrijft het fenomeen en gaat in op de praktijk van professionals in de zorg- en veiligheidsketen, die met de problematiek te maken krijgen. Op basis van casusstudies en onderzoek in gemeenten laat het rapport zien in hoeverre professionals uitbuiting van minderjarigen in de criminaliteit signaleren, of zij voldoende toegerust zijn om het probleem aan te pakken en wat zij er in de praktijk aan doen. Verder gaat het rapport in op de samenwerking tussen betrokken professionals.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Universiteit Utrecht - Departement Bestuurs - en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO)
    • Universiteit Utrecht - Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen
    • A. Bos
    • K. Loyens
    • V. Nagy
    • WODC
    • B. Oude Breuil
    • Criminele uitbuiting
    • Minderjarigen
    • Minderjarigen
    • Signalering
    • Criminele uitbuiting
    • Nederlands
  6. Taal Engels Loyola University New Orleans Modern Slavery Research Project Human trafficking — the exploitation of a person’s labor through force, fraud, or coercion — is a crime whose victims tend to be society’s most vulnerable. People who ...

    Human trafficking — the exploitation of a person’s labor through force, fraud, or coercion — is a crime whose victims tend to be society’s most vulnerable. People who are homeless, lack a support system, or are desperate for work are susceptible to the promises of people who would exploit them for labor and for sex. Recently, homeless youth providers in the United States and Canada have become aware that their clients are particularly at risk of trafficking, and research has begun to uncover the extent and contours of the problem within that community.For more information see: Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United States of America
    • Canada
    • Loyola University New Orleans
    • Modern Slavery Research Project
    • Engels
  7. Taal Engels Christina Bloem MD MPH Rikki E. Morris DO and Makini Chisolm-Straker Abstract Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critic ...

    Abstract Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • DO
    • and Makini Chisolm-Straker
    • Christina Bloem
    • MD
    • MPH
    • Rikki E. Morris
    • Conflict areas
    • Health care
    • Ethics
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  8. Taal Engels European Parliament Trafficking in human beings (THB), in all its forms, is a serious crime affecting fundamental rights, health, social life, economy and justice. THB knows no boundaries and most reported victims are female EU ...

    Trafficking in human beings (THB), in all its forms, is a serious crime affecting fundamental rights, health, social life, economy and justice. THB knows no boundaries and most reported victims are female EU nationals from Central and Eastern Europe. THB can be tackled effectively only through a coherent approach at the levels of legislation and executive powers and through strategic policy-making. Proper investigation and prosecution are important and enhance victim protection and assistance as well as prevention. However, taking into account the gender dimension of THB is essential to ensure adequate support for the victims as well as effective prevention. The 2011 EU Anti-Trafficking Directive represents a landmark piece of legislation in that respect.The Ex-Post Impact Assessment Unit of the European Parliament has asked several groups of experts to analyse the implementation and application of the Directive, from a gender perspective, in 12 Member States: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, the UK and Spain. The contributions received point to an uneven implementation of the Directive's requirements across the EU Member States.The findings emphasise the need to improve the identification of victims, which is key for granting them protection, to establish better training on the gender aspects of the different forms of human trafficking for front-line officers, to enhance cooperation between public administration and competent NGOs, and to expand prevention via public awareness campaigning.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • European Union
    • European Parliament
    • Gender dimension
    • Women's rights
    • Victim protection
    • Engels
  9. Taal Nederlands Clingendael- Netherlands Institute of International Relations Uitgangspunt van de studie is dat interne en externe veiligheidsfenomenen ruwweg op vier manieren met elkaar verbonden kunnen zijn, namelijk door middel van logis ...

    Uitgangspunt van de studie is dat interne en externe veiligheidsfenomenen ruwweg op vier manieren met elkaar verbonden kunnen zijn, namelijk door middel van logistieke, sociale, culturele en digitale connecties. Verbanden die in de regioanalyses zijn gevonden, worden aan de hand van deze typologie geduid, in de hoop zo meer inzicht te vergaren in de vraag wanneer externe ontwikkelingen relevant zijn voor de Nederlandse politie. Drugshandel, cybercrime, migratie en terrorisme blijken voor Nederland belangrijke grensoverschrijdende thema’s te zijn. Europa en de MENA-regio hebben een sterke en directe veiligheidsrelatie met Nederland: vrijwel alle thema’s die in deze regio’s prominent aan de orde zijn, zijn in Nederland eveneens hoog geprioriteerd. Een andere belangrijke conclusie is dat Sub-Sahara Afrika meer aandacht verdient, gezien de grote dynamiek van veiligheidsontwikkelingen aldaar, ontwikkelingen, die deels direct maar voor een deel ook indirect en op termijn de Nederlandse veiligheidssituatie beïnvloeden. In scorecards geeft dit rapport per regio weer hoe een veelheid aan externe veiligheidsdreigingen Nederland raakt, variërend van witwaspraktijken op het Arabisch schiereiland en de illegale winning van natuurlijke bronnen in Zuid-Amerika tot het dumpen van e-waste in West-Afrika en de bloeiende handel in namaakgoederen uit Oost-Azië.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Clingendael - Netherlands Institute of International Relations
    • Irreguliere migratie
    • Mensenhandel
    • Mensensmokkel
    • Politie
    • Ondermijnende criminaliteit
    • Nederlands
  10. Taal Nederlands United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) UNODC heeft een nieuw rapport gepubliceerd over mensenhandel. In dit rapport wordt de stand van zaken met betrekking tot mensenhandel besproken over heel de wereld. 2016 GLOBA ...

    UNODC heeft een nieuw rapport gepubliceerd over mensenhandel. In dit rapport wordt de stand van zaken met betrekking tot mensenhandel besproken over heel de wereld.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
    • Nederlands

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