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  1. 5 Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek Paul van Gelder Willemijn Smit Leonie Bakker Katrien de Vaan Taal Nederlands Abstract: Regioplan en Shop Den Haag deden in opdracht van VWS onderzoek naar jongensslachtoffers van seksuele uitbuiting en binnenland ...

    Abstract:Regioplan en Shop Den Haag deden in opdracht van VWS onderzoek naar jongensslachtoffers van seksuele uitbuiting en binnenlandse mensenhandel. Het doel van het onderzoek was om meer inzicht te krijgen in het fenomeen van slachtofferschap onder jongens en wat dit betekent voor de mogelijkheden voor signalering, zorg en begeleiding.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek
    • Paul van Gelder
    • Willemijn Smit
    • Leonie Bakker
    • Katrien de Vaan
    • Mannenprostitutie
    • Mensenhandel
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Jongensprostitutie
    • Nederlands
  2. Taal Engels Laura Cordisco Tsai Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta Abstract: Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide f ...

    Abstract:Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide financially for their families, challenges securing employment, lack of savings, and familial debt. Few evaluations have been conducted of reintegration support interventions addressing financial vulnerability among trafficking survivors. In this article, we present findings from a participatory assessment of the BARUG program, a matched savings and financial capability program for survivors of human trafficking and their family members in the Philippines. Photovoice was used to understand the experiences of two cohorts of BARUG participants. Survivors collaborated with research team members in conducting thematic analysis of transcripts from the photovoice sessions. Themes included: the positive emotional impact of financial wellness, overcoming the challenges of saving, applying financial management skills in daily decision making, developing a habit of savings, building a future-oriented mindset, receiving guidance and enlightenment, the learning process, and the change process. Findings reinforce the importance of interventions to support trafficked persons and their family members in getting out of debt and accumulating emergency savings, while also providing emotional support to survivors in coping with family financial pressures. The study also highlights the value of using participatory research methods to understand the experiences of trafficked persons.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Laura Cordisco Tsai
    • Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena
    • Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta
    • Human Trafficking Survivors
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels Britteny Pfleger Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016) Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19 Intro ...

    Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016)Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19Introduction by author:The residents of Lebanon, Missouri, a small town in the southern part of the state, certainly did not believe their kind, generous neighbors were in fact sadistic slave owners.1 Yet such brutality existed, lurking beneath one such family’s gentle and caring façade.2 In what was later described as the most horrific case of sex trafficking ever prosecuted in the state, a resident couple housed a mentally deficient runaway teenage girl with a troubled past and forced her to sign a never-ending sex-slave contract.3 “Master Ed” branded his victim with a bar code tattoo, marking her as his property, and forced her to have sex with him and several “customers.”4 Over the next six years, Master Ed subjected the girl to waterboarding, electrocution, and beatings.5 He repeatedly threatened his victim with a gun, exhibiting his ability to kill her if she did not comply.6 The trafficking was not discovered until 2009, when the victim went into cardiac arrest after one of Master Ed’s torture sessions, resulting in her hospitalization and emergency treatment.7 While the circumstances in the Lebanon case were especially horrific, the practice of sex trafficking is not unique. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (“NHTRC”) reported 4136 cases of sex trafficking in the United States in 2015,8 including 155 cases in Missouri between 2013 and 2015.9 To combat these alarming statistics, Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (“TVPA”) in 2000 to “ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers.”10 The TVPA criminalizes the trafficking of people in the commercial sex industry by force, fraud, or coercion.11 A conviction under this statute subjects a defendant to a minimum of fifteen years in federal prison.12 Separately, Congress authorized federal prosecutors to charge defendants who possess a gun while committing a “crime of violence” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c).13 A conviction under this statute is punishable by at least five years, served in addition to the underlying crime of violence.14 To convict a defendant under § 924(c), prosecutors must show (1) the defendant possessed or used a gun in the commission of his or her crime and (2) the crime committed is characterized as a “crime of violence.”15 Prior to 2015, federal courts agreed the sex trafficking of minors was a “crime of violence.”16 however, in August 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit went against this trend, declaring sex trafficking of an adult victim not to be a crime of violence.17 This Note analyzes the Fourth Circuit’s opinion in United States v. Fuertes, ultimately concluding that, contrary to the decision in Fuertes, sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). Part II of this Note details the acts of German Ventura, a defendant charged with sex trafficking and possession of a gun during a crime of violence. Part III explores the purpose of § 924(c) and courts’ interpretations of “crime of violence”; it then considers federal circuit courts’ bases for finding sex trafficking under the TVPA to be a violent crime under a variety of statutes. Part IV summarizes the Fourth Circuit’s decision to depart from established precedent. Part V scrutinizes the court’s theory that sex trafficking cannot be a violent crime, ultimately resolving that, while sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence, Congress must change the statute to expressly reflect the violent nature of sex trafficking.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Britteny Pfleger
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Crime of Violence
    • Engels
  4. Taal Engels Jasmine-Kim Westendorf Louise Searle International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001 Published: 01 March 2017   Abstract by authors:   In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation ...

    International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387.DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001Published: 01 March 2017 Abstract by authors: In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) ‘the most significant risk to UN peacekeeping missions’. The exploitation and abuse of women and children by peacekeepers, aid workers, private contractors and other interveners has become ubiquitous to peace operations, ranging from rape to transactional sex, sex trafficking, prostitution and pornography. This article investigates the causes of SEA by interveners, and the development of policy responses undertaken by the UN and the international humanitarian community to prevent and ensure accountability for SEA. We argue that use of the umbrella term ‘SEA’, while helpful in distinguishing such behaviour from other forms of abuse, obscures the significant differences in the form, function and causes of the behaviours that fall under it, and we develop an account of the dominant forms SEA takes, based on survivor testimony, in order to better understand why policy responses have been ineffective. Our analysis of global policies around SEA demonstrates that it is dealt with as a discrete form of misbehaviour that occurs on an individual level and can be addressed through largely information-based training processes that inform personnel of its prohibition but fail to engage them in discussions of the local, international, normative, systemic and structural factors that give rise to it. We identify the structural and bureaucratic pressures that have contributed to the narrowing of approach regarding SEA to focus on individual compliance rather than the more complex set of factors at play, and which have undermined the effectiveness of policies globally.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Jasmine-Kim Westendorf
    • Louise Searle
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Gender
    • Engels
  5. Taal Engels Michelle Lefevre Kristine Hickle Barry Luckock Gillian Ruch The British Journal of Social Work bcw181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcw181 Published: 14 February 2017   Abstract by authors:   Research with children and youn ...

    The British Journal of Social Work bcw181.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcw181Published: 14 February 2017 Abstract by authors: Research with children and young people at risk of child sexual exploitation (CSE) has highlighted that professionals need to engage children in relationships of trust if they are to be most successful in enabling children to explore and address risky behaviours, situations and relationships. More needs to be understood about professional approaches to building such trusting relationships, particularly when children feel (often with good cause) that professionals are not always able to balance their need for protection and guidance with their right to a voice and to make agentic choices about their own lives. This paper draws on interim findings from a two-year realist evaluation study funded by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner in England into the implementation and evaluation of a new child-centred framework for working with CSE , ‘See Me, Hear Me’, within three pilot local authority sites in different regions of England. A survey and qualitative interviews reveal how professionals from a range of disciplines draw on their knowledge, skills, personal qualities and values to develop trust. Key themes for effective practice were relationship-based practice, an ethically grounded approach, child-centred, and being skilled and knowledgeable in relation to working with CSE.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United Kingdom
    • Michelle Lefevre
    • Kristine Hickle
    • Barry Luckock
    • Gillian Ruch
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Engels
  6. Taal Engels Howard Dubowitz Abstract by author: The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention ...

    Abstract by author:The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) has conducted surveillance of child maltreatment and child protection every two years, published in World Perspectives on Child Abuse. It is hoped that up to date information will inform the development of laws, policies and programs to better address child abuse and neglect. This article is based on data on child sexual abuse and exploitation from 73 countries gathered online in 2015-16 for the 12 edition of World Perspectives. Respondents were key informants who were knowledgeable professionals in the child protection field. They were encouraged to consult with colleagues so as to provide accurate information. Countries were grouped into different regions of the world and into income level categories. The findings focus on definitions of abuse and neglect, laws, policies and programs to address and prevent maltreatment and barriers to prevention. It is evident that there is considerable variability across regions and country income categories, and that programs and services need to be considerably strengthened, even in high income countries.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Howard Dubowitz
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Prevention
    • Engels
  7. Taal Engels Sandra Wann University of Houston-Clear Lake Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926 Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work: http://gradworks.proquest.com/103 ...

    Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work:http://gradworks.proquest.com/10307926.pdfAbstract by author:Human trafficking has recently risen to become the second largest organized crime world-wide. Also, commonly referred to as "modern day slavery," this international crime exposes our inherent criminal justice issues due to linkage blindness and the marginalization of victims. The problem is not the absence of laws, but rather a systemic breakdown in basic communication among those entrusted with the duty to protect and serve. Law enforcement apprehends and the criminal justice system prosecutes the victims of this heinous enterprise instead of pursuing justice on their behalf. The marginalization of the victims of this horrific crime further serves to compound the misery suffered by those unfortunate enough to be caught in the snare of modern day slavery, which plaques our globe and threatens our humanity. Although human trafficking includes trafficking for forced labor, trafficking in commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism, and trafficking in organs, this paper will focus on trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation.  

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Sandra Wann
    • University of Houston-Clear Lake
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  8. Taal Engels Paul O Bello Adewale A Olutola Abstract by authors: This article evaluates the current community-policing initiative in response to human trafficking in South Africa. Though community policing is evident in policing operations i ...

    Abstract by authors:This article evaluates the current community-policing initiative in response to human trafficking in South Africa. Though community policing is evident in policing operations in the country, in recent times it has practically lost its face value and somehow has become unconvincing, particularly in response to human trafficking. Despite its global construction, human trafficking has been a resonating problem in South Africa. Its impacts have generated a myriad concerns, most of which revolve around the ineffectiveness of current policing tactics in combating its scourge. Profoundly, human trafficking often flourishes where there are gaps in social control especially due to asymmetric relationships between the police and the public in a dynamic milieu. This article is drawn from an analysis of a broader doctoral study on examining human trafficking and the response of the South African criminal justice system, and it utilises the mixed methods approach. Findings from this study suggest that for an effective or result-oriented approach, current community-based counter-trafficking strategies in South Africa need to be reviewed to embrace and reflect the true ideals of community policing initiatives.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • South Africa
    • Paul O Bello
    • Adewale A Olutola
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  9. Taal Engels Mette Rudvin Francesca Pesare University of Bologna http://www.revistas.uma.es/index.php/trans/article/view/2095 Abstract by authors:   Interpreting and language mediation for female victims of human trafficking for sexual purpo ...

    http://www.revistas.uma.es/index.php/trans/article/view/2095Abstract by authors: Interpreting and language mediation for female victims of human trafficking for sexual purposes is a profoundly complex area with major human and professional ethical implications. Detention centres for undocumented migrants in Italy have been given much attention in the media recently in the wake of recent geopolitical events leading to a large influx of migrants and refugees. These centres have been particularly challenging for interpreters and language mediators for numerous reasons: linguistic/pragmatic, cultural, institutional, emotional and psychological, etc. This paper is based on data collected during a 6-month internship period at the CIE detention centre in Bologna and describes how working relationships are slowly and laboriously created and negotiated between institution, victim and interpreter/mediator. The paper describes the linguistic and pragmatic obstacles that emerge, especially in the use of Nigerian English, along with Arabic the most frequently used languages.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Italy
    • Mette Rudvin
    • Francesca Pesare
    • University of Bologna
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels Osita Agbu Chinyere Rita Agu AGBU, Osita; AGU, Chinyere Rita. SEX TRAFICKING AND VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN NIGERIA. Social Science Research, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, feb. 2017. Available at: < http://aphriapub.com/index.php/SSR ...

    AGBU, Osita; AGU, Chinyere Rita. SEX TRAFICKING AND VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN NIGERIA. Social Science Research, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, feb. 2017. Available at: <http://aphriapub.com/index.php/SSR/article/view/8>.Abstract by authors:This article examines the problem of sex trafficking and violence against children in Nigeria, focusing on the causes and legal remedies available; as often times, the public is ignorant of the existing remedies and the magnitude of the problem. It conceptually clarifies its position on who actually is a child? And what is meant when we discuss sex trafficking as this relates to children. In outlining the legal and policy remedies for the protection of children against sex trafficking and violence, the article outlines and distinguishes between national, regional and international legal frameworks and remedies, and finally discussed and espoused the possible remedies embodied in the existing frameworks in Nigeria. The challenges encountered are also discussed and recommendations proffered for addressing this serious national, as well as global problem of the 21st century.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Nigeria
    • Osita Agbu
    • Chinyere Rita Agu
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Violence Against Children
    • Child Rights
    • Child Protection
    • Engels

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