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  1. Taal Engels Sandra Wann University of Houston-Clear Lake Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926 Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work: http://gradworks.proquest.com/103 ...

    Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work:http://gradworks.proquest.com/10307926.pdfAbstract by author:Human trafficking has recently risen to become the second largest organized crime world-wide. Also, commonly referred to as "modern day slavery," this international crime exposes our inherent criminal justice issues due to linkage blindness and the marginalization of victims. The problem is not the absence of laws, but rather a systemic breakdown in basic communication among those entrusted with the duty to protect and serve. Law enforcement apprehends and the criminal justice system prosecutes the victims of this heinous enterprise instead of pursuing justice on their behalf. The marginalization of the victims of this horrific crime further serves to compound the misery suffered by those unfortunate enough to be caught in the snare of modern day slavery, which plaques our globe and threatens our humanity. Although human trafficking includes trafficking for forced labor, trafficking in commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism, and trafficking in organs, this paper will focus on trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation.  

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Sandra Wann
    • University of Houston-Clear Lake
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  2. Taal Engels Paul O Bello Adewale A Olutola Abstract by authors: This article evaluates the current community-policing initiative in response to human trafficking in South Africa. Though community policing is evident in policing operations i ...

    Abstract by authors:This article evaluates the current community-policing initiative in response to human trafficking in South Africa. Though community policing is evident in policing operations in the country, in recent times it has practically lost its face value and somehow has become unconvincing, particularly in response to human trafficking. Despite its global construction, human trafficking has been a resonating problem in South Africa. Its impacts have generated a myriad concerns, most of which revolve around the ineffectiveness of current policing tactics in combating its scourge. Profoundly, human trafficking often flourishes where there are gaps in social control especially due to asymmetric relationships between the police and the public in a dynamic milieu. This article is drawn from an analysis of a broader doctoral study on examining human trafficking and the response of the South African criminal justice system, and it utilises the mixed methods approach. Findings from this study suggest that for an effective or result-oriented approach, current community-based counter-trafficking strategies in South Africa need to be reviewed to embrace and reflect the true ideals of community policing initiatives.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • South Africa
    • Paul O Bello
    • Adewale A Olutola
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels Mette Rudvin Francesca Pesare University of Bologna http://www.revistas.uma.es/index.php/trans/article/view/2095 Abstract by authors:   Interpreting and language mediation for female victims of human trafficking for sexual purpo ...

    http://www.revistas.uma.es/index.php/trans/article/view/2095Abstract by authors: Interpreting and language mediation for female victims of human trafficking for sexual purposes is a profoundly complex area with major human and professional ethical implications. Detention centres for undocumented migrants in Italy have been given much attention in the media recently in the wake of recent geopolitical events leading to a large influx of migrants and refugees. These centres have been particularly challenging for interpreters and language mediators for numerous reasons: linguistic/pragmatic, cultural, institutional, emotional and psychological, etc. This paper is based on data collected during a 6-month internship period at the CIE detention centre in Bologna and describes how working relationships are slowly and laboriously created and negotiated between institution, victim and interpreter/mediator. The paper describes the linguistic and pragmatic obstacles that emerge, especially in the use of Nigerian English, along with Arabic the most frequently used languages.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Italy
    • Mette Rudvin
    • Francesca Pesare
    • University of Bologna
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  4. Taal Engels Osita Agbu Chinyere Rita Agu AGBU, Osita; AGU, Chinyere Rita. SEX TRAFICKING AND VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN NIGERIA. Social Science Research, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, feb. 2017. Available at: < http://aphriapub.com/index.php/SSR ...

    AGBU, Osita; AGU, Chinyere Rita. SEX TRAFICKING AND VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN NIGERIA. Social Science Research, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, feb. 2017. Available at: <http://aphriapub.com/index.php/SSR/article/view/8>.Abstract by authors:This article examines the problem of sex trafficking and violence against children in Nigeria, focusing on the causes and legal remedies available; as often times, the public is ignorant of the existing remedies and the magnitude of the problem. It conceptually clarifies its position on who actually is a child? And what is meant when we discuss sex trafficking as this relates to children. In outlining the legal and policy remedies for the protection of children against sex trafficking and violence, the article outlines and distinguishes between national, regional and international legal frameworks and remedies, and finally discussed and espoused the possible remedies embodied in the existing frameworks in Nigeria. The challenges encountered are also discussed and recommendations proffered for addressing this serious national, as well as global problem of the 21st century.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Nigeria
    • Osita Agbu
    • Chinyere Rita Agu
    • Violence Against Children
    • Child Rights
    • Child Protection
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  5. Language English 1 read Simon Hedlin Simon Hedlin, Can Prostitution Law Reform Curb Sex Trafficking? Theory and Evidence on Scale Substitution, and Replacement Effects, 50 U. Mich. J. L. Reform 329 (2016). Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjl ...

    Simon Hedlin, Can Prostitution Law Reform Curb Sex Trafficking? Theory and Evidence on Scale Substitution, and Replacement Effects, 50U. Mich. J. L. Reform 329 (2016).Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjlr/vol50/iss2/3By author: Sex trafficking, a pervasive problem in many parts of the world, has become increasingly salient to policymakers and the general public. Activists, politicians, and scholars continue to engage in debates about how best to curb it. This Article discusses one especially contentious dimension of these debates: does banning prostitution reduce sex trafficking? Or is legalizing prostitution the optimal approach? Or is there a third, better way? Proceeding both theoretically and empirically, this Article seeks to cast light on the relationship between different types of prostitution laws and the prevalence of sex trafficking and human trafficking. It attempts to make three contributions to the literature. First, it builds on existing theories of the link between the demand for purchased sex and the supply of sex-trafficking victims to create a simple ordinal measure of prostitution laws. This measure, which the Article dubs the Prostitution Law Index (PLI), captures not only whether prostitution overall is legal or illegal, but whether buying sex is legal or illegal and whether selling sex is legal or illegal, which better reflects the actual cross-country variation in prostitution laws. The PLI takes into account scale, substitution, and replacement effects in the market for prostitution, where scale refers to increases in the prevalence of trafficking that are caused by growth of the overall market for prostitution; substitution to decreases in trafficking caused by current consumers who purchase sex with trafficking victims and, based on the risk of criminal sanction, shift to instead purchasing sex with individuals who voluntarily sell sex, thereby crowding out trafficking victims; and replacement to decreases in trafficking caused by new voluntary sellers of sex who, incentivized by changes in prostitution laws, enter the market and crowd out trafficking victims. The PLI ranks prostitution laws across countries on a four-point scale (from 1 to 4), based on their expected effectiveness (from least to most effective) in reducing sex trafficking. Second, the study uses a recent dataset provided by the European Union to map the statistical relationship between PLI scores and prevalence of sex trafficking, based on the Article’s theory of scale, substitution, and replacement effects. The analysis suggests that there generally is an inverse relationship between a country’s PLI score and the prevalence of trafficking in that country. Greater legislative efforts to reduce scale and to increase substitution and replacement appear, on average, to be associated with lower levels of sex trafficking. Third, the Article presents a basic Difference-in-Differences analysis—on the basis of extremely limited data and thus with an unusually large number of caveats— of Norway’s 2009 prostitution law reform. Tentative results indicate that the Norwegian reform, which made it legal to sell but illegal to buy sex, may potentially have helped reduce the prevalence of trafficking there. 

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • European Union
    • Simon Hedlin
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Prostitution
    • Engels
  6. Taal Engels 3 Norah Hashim Msuya Msuya, Norah Hashim (2017) "Tradition and Culture in Africa: Practices that Facilitate Trafficking of Women and Children," Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Art ...

    Msuya, Norah Hashim (2017) "Tradition and Culture in Africa: Practices that Facilitate Trafficking of Women and Children," Dignity:A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 3.DOI: 10.23860/dignity.2017.02.01.03 Abstract by author: Many states in Africa have adopted legislative, administrative and institutional measures to combat trafficking in human beings. These measures include, among other things, the formulation and implementation of both national and regional action plans by African states to provide for comprehensive and coordinated interventions. Many African countries have also enacted an anti-trafficking legislation at the country level. Despite these measures, African women and children have been trafficked annually worldwide for purposes of forced labor, sexual exploitation, and domestic servitude. Additionally, women and children are trafficked within their countries from rural to urban areas. Misconception and abuse of African tradition and culture have been one of the underlying root causes of human trafficking. Cultural practices, such as forcing young girls into ritual servitude, Trokosi (slaves to the Gods), Wahaya (fifth wife), Ukuthwala (kidnapping girls for marriage), payments of dowry, male dominance, female genital cutting, witchcraft, and child marriage, perpetuate the crime of human trafficking. Some women and young girls in Africa, many of whom migrate from rural to urban areas, find themselves compelled by these cultural beliefs to leave their home and family. This crime has been taking place imperceptibly for a long time. More often than not, incidents have been reported, and charges such as statutory rape and kidnapping are filed against the perpetrators, without authorities knowing that they constitute the offense of trafficking. Although most African traditions and cultural practices are positive when they are distorted and abused, they perpetuate serious problems like trafficking.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Africa
    • Norah Hashim Msuya
    • Engels
  7. A. Bos K. Loyens V. Nagy B. Oude Breuil Universiteit Utrecht- Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) Universiteit Utrecht- Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen WODC Taal Nederlands Samenvatting WODC: In 2011 i ...

    Samenvatting WODC:In 2011 is   het landelijke programma Aanpak uitbuiting Roma kinderen in een samenwerkingsverband tussen het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie (VenJ) en het ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid (SZW) gestart. In 2014 is het programma verlengd tot eind 2016. Gedurende de programmaperiode komt naar voren dat de integrale aanpak van criminele uitbuiting van minderjarigen moeilijk lijkt. Vanuit dit programma wil men meer inzicht krijgen in de aard en de omvang van criminele uitbuiting van (Roma) kinderen. De onderzoeksvraag is verbreed naar alle kinderen die zich in Nederland bevinden.Dit onderzoekrapport gaat over uitbuiting van minderjarigen in de criminaliteit in Nederland. Het rapport beschrijft het fenomeen en gaat in op de praktijk van professionals in de zorg- en veiligheidsketen, die met de problematiek te maken krijgen. Op basis van casusstudies en onderzoek in gemeenten laat het rapport zien in hoeverre professionals uitbuiting van minderjarigen in de criminaliteit signaleren, of zij voldoende toegerust zijn om het probleem aan te pakken en wat zij er in de praktijk aan doen. Verder gaat het rapport in op de samenwerking tussen betrokken professionals.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Universiteit Utrecht - Departement Bestuurs - en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO)
    • Universiteit Utrecht - Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen
    • A. Bos
    • K. Loyens
    • V. Nagy
    • WODC
    • B. Oude Breuil
    • Criminele uitbuiting
    • Minderjarigen
    • Signalering
    • Criminele uitbuiting
    • Minderjarigen
    • Nederlands
  8. Taal Engels Loyola University New Orleans Modern Slavery Research Project Human trafficking — the exploitation of a person’s labor through force, fraud, or coercion — is a crime whose victims tend to be society’s most vulnerable. People who ...

    Human trafficking — the exploitation of a person’s labor through force, fraud, or coercion — is a crime whose victims tend to be society’s most vulnerable. People who are homeless, lack a support system, or are desperate for work are susceptible to the promises of people who would exploit them for labor and for sex. Recently, homeless youth providers in the United States and Canada have become aware that their clients are particularly at risk of trafficking, and research has begun to uncover the extent and contours of the problem within that community.For more information see: Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United States of America
    • Canada
    • Loyola University New Orleans
    • Modern Slavery Research Project
    • Engels
  9. Taal Nederlands 3 Maite Verhoeven Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam WODC Uit Nederlandse Samenvatting WODC:   In Nederland is het verrichten van sekswerk een legale en gereguleerde manier om geld te verdienen. Sommige sekswerkers worden echter ge ...

    Uit Nederlandse Samenvatting WODC: In Nederland is het verrichten van sekswerk een legale en gereguleerde manier om geld te verdienen. Sommige sekswerkers worden echter gemanipuleerd, misleid of gedwongen om dit werk te doen of om hun geld af te geven. Dit misdrijf, de uitbuiting van sekswerkers, heet mensenhandel. De aanpak van mensenhandel in de seksindustrie is een prioriteit van zowel de nationale als van lokale overheden. Verschillende organisaties richten zich op het voorkomen en bestrijden van mensenhandel en op de bescherming van slachtoffers. Echter, mensen die worden geïdentificeerd als slachtoffers van mensenhandel weigeren vaak de hulp die hen wordt geboden en veel slachtoffers zijn terughoudend om uitbuiting te melden bij de politie of om hulp te zoeken. Hoe kan deze kloof tussen de behoeften van slachtoffers en de wijze waarop mensenhandel in de seksindustrie door de overheid wordt aangepakt, worden verklaard? Om hier meer inzicht in te krijgen, heb ik onderzocht in hoeverre de aanpak van mensenhandel in de seksindustrie aansluit bij de aard van het fenomeen. Het onderzoek gaat daarbij in op: (1) de kenmerken van mensenhandel, (2) de relaties tussen verdachten en slachtoffers van mensenhandel, (3) de opsporing van mensenhandel en (4) de betekenis die sekswerkers toekennen aan beleidsmaatregelen om mensenhandel te bestrijden.Zie ook: Nederlandse Samenvatting WODC

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Nederland
    • Maite Verhoeven
    • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
    • WODC
    • Gedwongen prostitutie
    • Illegale prostitutie
    • Gelegaliseerde prostitutie
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels Allison J. Luzwick Abstract The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) was passed to “combat trafficking in persons, a contemporary manifestation of slavery whose victims are predominantly women and children, to ensur ...

    AbstractThe Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) was passed to “combat trafficking in persons, a contemporary manifestation of slavery whose victims are predominantly women and children, to ensurejust and effective punishment of traffickers, and to protect their victims.”Since the passing of the Act, federal courts have construed the statute broadly to achieve this stated purpose. One way in which the TVPA has been underutilized, however, is in prosecuting pornography cases. Pornography enjoys wide latitude under the law, protected by a vast net of First Amendment protections. While these protections may preserve freedom of speech, they do nothing to protect adult victims who are trafficked to produce online pornographic media. To provide relief for these victims and better fight all types of domestic trafficking, prosecutors should use the sex trafficking provision of the TVPA, 18 U.S.C. § 1591, to prosecute sex trafficking within the pornography industry. The pattern of victimization, other national and international human trafficking directives, plain language of the TVPA, prior cases, and broader policy goals all support the argument that the TVPA can and should be used to address the problem of trafficking adult victims for the production of porn.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Allison J. Luzwick
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels

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