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  1. Language Dutch 1 read Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal Dit is een eerste Nederlandse rapportage over de implementatie van de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Met name de volgende SDG's zijn van belang met betrekkin ...

    Dit is een eerste Nederlandse rapportage over de implementatie van de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Met name de volgende SDG's zijn van belang met betrekking tot Mensenhandel:SDG5: Gendergelijkheid'De positie van bepaalde groepen meisjes in Nederland is zorgelijk [...]. In het kader van mensenhandel kan gewezen worden op Roma-kinderen die worden gedwongen tot diefstal en bedelen; Syrische kindbruiden die verdwijnen als huisslaaf; vluchtelingenkinderen die seksueel worden uitgebuit, meisjes die slachtoffer worden van besnijdenis; en Nederlandse meisjes die worden geprostitueerd.'SDG10: Verminderde ongelijkheid'Naast structurele opvang in de regio is het Nederlandse beleid gericht op het steunen van landen op migratieroutes. Nederland speelt een actieve rol om migratiepartnerschappen te vormen met specifieke Afrikaanse landen, zowel bilateraal als in Europees verband. Het gaat hierbij om het aanpakken van de onderliggende oorzaken van irreguliere migratie en gedwongen verplaatsing, verbeteren van migratiemanagement, het opstarten van informatiecampagnes, en een belangrijke focus voor het tegengaan van mensenhandel en –smokkel. Belangrijke partners hierbij zijn de overheden van de betrokken landen, en internationale organisaties als IOM en UNODC.'SDG16: Vrede, veiligheid en sterke publieke diensten'Nederland scoort over het algemeen goed op de onderdelen van doel 16 over vrede, instituties en recht. Zowel mensenhandel als de aanpak van kinderporno en kindersekstoerisme – nationaal en internationaal – blijft een belangrijke prioriteit van het kabinet. Er is de afgelopen jaren geïnvesteerd om voldoende deskundige capaciteit in de rechtshandhaving te realiseren, zowel door nationale als internationale rechtbanken. Nederland wil daarnaast geen veilige haven zijn voor hen die zich in andere landen schuldig hebben gemaakt aan het misdrijf genocide, misdrijven tegen menselijkheid en oorlogsmisdrijven, en zet zich daarom in voor de strafrechtelijke aanpak van de verdachten van deze misdrijven. Zo worden in Nederland verblijvende verdachten berecht en worden andere landen en internationale organisaties bijgestaan ten behoeve van berechting elders. Nederland is tevens een van de landen die zich actief inzet om te komen tot een multilateraal verdrag over wederzijdse rechtshulp en uitlevering bij oorlogsmisdaden, misdaden tegen de mensheid en genocide. Ook zet Nederland zich in voor het indammen van onwettige financiële stromen. In het bijzonder gaat het hierom het tegengaan van corruptie, het ontnemen van crimineel vermogen en het bestrijden van illegale wapenstromen in binnen- en buitenland.' 

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal
    • Gendergelijkheid
    • Verminderde ongelijkheid
    • Veiligheid
    • Nederlands
  2. Taal Nederlands Politie Met name de paragrafen 1.6 tot en met 1.9 van Deel 2 zijn interessant met betrekking tot Mensenhandel. 1.6.5 Kwalificatie van dreiging [van seksuele uitbuiting] Seksuele uitbuiting heeft ernstige gevolgen voor de Ned ...

    Met name de paragrafen 1.6 tot en met 1.9 van Deel 2 zijn interessant met betrekking tot Mensenhandel.1.6.5 Kwalificatie van dreiging [van seksuele uitbuiting]Seksuele uitbuiting heeft ernstige gevolgen voor de Nederlandse samenleving, vooral vanwege de aantasting van de lichamelijke en geestelijke integriteit van de slachtoffers en het machtsgebruik waarmee de uitbuiting gepaard gaat. De slachtoffers lopen aanzienlijke gezondheidsrisico’s als gevolg van fysiek geweld en onveilige seks. Naar verwachting verschuift de prostitutie de komende jaren verder naar de onvergunde branche door de verhoging van de minimumleeftijd van 18 naar 21 jaar om als prostituee werkzaam te mogen zijn. De gezondheidsrisico’s voor prostituees en klanten zullen dan toenemen, evenals de overlast in woonwijken.Seksuele uitbuiting wordt steeds vluchtiger en minder zichtbaar en grijpbaar onder invloed van digitale ontwikkelingen, het versluieren van de herkomst van crimineel geld en het subtiele en snelle inlijven van de slachtoffers. Er wordt een verdere toename verwacht van kwetsbare slachtoffers; minderjarigen en sociaal zwakkere jongeren, onder wie licht verstandelijk gehandicapten, zullen vaker worden geworven en uitgebuit. Ook vluchtelingen vormen een kwetsbare groep en door de toestroom van migranten zal het risico op uitbuiting in Nederland onder deze groep nieuwkomers naar verwachting toenemen. De financiële schade voor de slachtoffers en de Nederlandse overheid loopt jaarlijks in de tientallen miljoenen euro’s. Voor de komende vier jaar zijn de verwachte gevolgen van deze vorm van slavernij in totaliteit dusdanig ernstig dat sprake is van een dreiging voor de Nederlandse samenleving.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Politie
    • Bestrijding georganiseerde criminaliteit
    • Nederlands
  3. Taal Engels FXB Center for Health and Human Rights Harvard University From executive summary:   The present study analyzes the risk factors responsible for the exposure of migrant and refugee children to physical, psychological, and sexual ...

    From executive summary: The present study analyzes the risk factors responsible for the exposure of migrant and refugee children to physical, psychological, and sexual violence and exploitation in Greece in the context of the ongoing migrant humanitarian crisis. It documents sexual and physical abuse of children inside migrant camps and reports new information about the commercial sexual exploitation of migrant children in the main cities of Greece. This research also explores the existing gaps and challenges in intervention efforts that contribute to victimization of migrant children.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Greece
    • FXB Center for Health and Human Rights
    • Harvard University
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Health
    • Human Rights
    • Migrant Children
    • Engels
  4. Taal Engels James Cockayne United Nations University Abstract by author:   Human trafficking is both illegal and big business. The International Labour Organization estimates that forced labour, one of the forms of exploitation into which h ...

    Abstract by author: Human trafficking is both illegal and big business. The International Labour Organization estimates that forced labour, one of the forms of exploitation into which humans are trafficked, generates $150 billion a year in revenues, while the Global Slavery Index suggests there may be as many as 45.8 million people enslaved today. Most of the victims are women and girls. The funds generated by human trafficking are proceeds of crime. Handling those funds can constitute money laundering or, in certain cases where designated terrorist organizations are involved, terrorist financing. Financial institutions that handle funds generated by human trafficking and modern slavery, or that finance businesses that engage in these crimes, thus risk violating a range of existing laws and norms, especially in the area of anti-money laundering (AML) and countering the financing of terrorism (CFT). To help industry actors and regulators think through their options for disrupting ties between the financial sector and human trafficking and modern slavery, UN University convened a workshop at Grace Farms in New Canaan, Connecticut, with the support of the Permanent Mission of Liechtenstein to the United Nations. Participants identified three main areas for action: strengthening sectoral knowledge uptake; improving regulation and encouraging leadership; and promoting information partnerships.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International
    • James Cockayne
    • United Nations University
    • modern slavery
    • financial sector
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  5. 14 Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek Paul van Gelder Willemijn Smit Leonie Bakker Katrien de Vaan Taal Nederlands Regioplan en Shop Den Haag deden in opdracht van VWS onderzoek naar jongensslachtoffers van seksuele uitbuiting en binnenlandse mensen ...

    Regioplan en Shop Den Haag deden in opdracht van VWS onderzoek naar jongensslachtoffers van seksuele uitbuiting en binnenlandse mensenhandel. Het doel van het onderzoek was om meer inzicht te krijgen in het fenomeen van slachtofferschap onder jongens en wat dit betekent voor de mogelijkheden voor signalering, zorg en begeleiding.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Nederland
    • Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek
    • Paul van Gelder
    • Willemijn Smit
    • Leonie Bakker
    • Katrien de Vaan
    • Mannenprostitutie
    • Jongensprostitutie
    • Seksuele uitbuiting
    • Mensenhandel
    • Nederlands
  6. Taal Engels Laura Cordisco Tsai Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta Abstract: Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide f ...

    Abstract:Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide financially for their families, challenges securing employment, lack of savings, and familial debt. Few evaluations have been conducted of reintegration support interventions addressing financial vulnerability among trafficking survivors. In this article, we present findings from a participatory assessment of the BARUG program, a matched savings and financial capability program for survivors of human trafficking and their family members in the Philippines. Photovoice was used to understand the experiences of two cohorts of BARUG participants. Survivors collaborated with research team members in conducting thematic analysis of transcripts from the photovoice sessions. Themes included: the positive emotional impact of financial wellness, overcoming the challenges of saving, applying financial management skills in daily decision making, developing a habit of savings, building a future-oriented mindset, receiving guidance and enlightenment, the learning process, and the change process. Findings reinforce the importance of interventions to support trafficked persons and their family members in getting out of debt and accumulating emergency savings, while also providing emotional support to survivors in coping with family financial pressures. The study also highlights the value of using participatory research methods to understand the experiences of trafficked persons.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • Verenigde Staten van Amerika
    • Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena
    • Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta
    • Laura Cordisco Tsai
    • Human Trafficking Survivors
    • Engels
  7. Taal Engels Britteny Pfleger Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016) Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19 Intro ...

    Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016)Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19Introduction by author:The residents of Lebanon, Missouri, a small town in the southern part of the state, certainly did not believe their kind, generous neighbors were in fact sadistic slave owners.1 Yet such brutality existed, lurking beneath one such family’s gentle and caring façade.2 In what was later described as the most horrific case of sex trafficking ever prosecuted in the state, a resident couple housed a mentally deficient runaway teenage girl with a troubled past and forced her to sign a never-ending sex-slave contract.3 “Master Ed” branded his victim with a bar code tattoo, marking her as his property, and forced her to have sex with him and several “customers.”4 Over the next six years, Master Ed subjected the girl to waterboarding, electrocution, and beatings.5 He repeatedly threatened his victim with a gun, exhibiting his ability to kill her if she did not comply.6 The trafficking was not discovered until 2009, when the victim went into cardiac arrest after one of Master Ed’s torture sessions, resulting in her hospitalization and emergency treatment.7 While the circumstances in the Lebanon case were especially horrific, the practice of sex trafficking is not unique. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (“NHTRC”) reported 4136 cases of sex trafficking in the United States in 2015,8 including 155 cases in Missouri between 2013 and 2015.9 To combat these alarming statistics, Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (“TVPA”) in 2000 to “ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers.”10 The TVPA criminalizes the trafficking of people in the commercial sex industry by force, fraud, or coercion.11 A conviction under this statute subjects a defendant to a minimum of fifteen years in federal prison.12 Separately, Congress authorized federal prosecutors to charge defendants who possess a gun while committing a “crime of violence” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c).13 A conviction under this statute is punishable by at least five years, served in addition to the underlying crime of violence.14 To convict a defendant under § 924(c), prosecutors must show (1) the defendant possessed or used a gun in the commission of his or her crime and (2) the crime committed is characterized as a “crime of violence.”15 Prior to 2015, federal courts agreed the sex trafficking of minors was a “crime of violence.”16 however, in August 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit went against this trend, declaring sex trafficking of an adult victim not to be a crime of violence.17 This Note analyzes the Fourth Circuit’s opinion in United States v. Fuertes, ultimately concluding that, contrary to the decision in Fuertes, sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). Part II of this Note details the acts of German Ventura, a defendant charged with sex trafficking and possession of a gun during a crime of violence. Part III explores the purpose of § 924(c) and courts’ interpretations of “crime of violence”; it then considers federal circuit courts’ bases for finding sex trafficking under the TVPA to be a violent crime under a variety of statutes. Part IV summarizes the Fourth Circuit’s decision to depart from established precedent. Part V scrutinizes the court’s theory that sex trafficking cannot be a violent crime, ultimately resolving that, while sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence, Congress must change the statute to expressly reflect the violent nature of sex trafficking.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Britteny Pfleger
    • Crime of Violence
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  8. Taal Engels Jasmine-Kim Westendorf Louise Searle International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001 Published: 01 March 2017   Abstract by authors:   In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation ...

    International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387.DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001Published: 01 March 2017 Abstract by authors: In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) ‘the most significant risk to UN peacekeeping missions’. The exploitation and abuse of women and children by peacekeepers, aid workers, private contractors and other interveners has become ubiquitous to peace operations, ranging from rape to transactional sex, sex trafficking, prostitution and pornography. This article investigates the causes of SEA by interveners, and the development of policy responses undertaken by the UN and the international humanitarian community to prevent and ensure accountability for SEA. We argue that use of the umbrella term ‘SEA’, while helpful in distinguishing such behaviour from other forms of abuse, obscures the significant differences in the form, function and causes of the behaviours that fall under it, and we develop an account of the dominant forms SEA takes, based on survivor testimony, in order to better understand why policy responses have been ineffective. Our analysis of global policies around SEA demonstrates that it is dealt with as a discrete form of misbehaviour that occurs on an individual level and can be addressed through largely information-based training processes that inform personnel of its prohibition but fail to engage them in discussions of the local, international, normative, systemic and structural factors that give rise to it. We identify the structural and bureaucratic pressures that have contributed to the narrowing of approach regarding SEA to focus on individual compliance rather than the more complex set of factors at play, and which have undermined the effectiveness of policies globally.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Jasmine-Kim Westendorf
    • Louise Searle
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Gender
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels
  9. Taal Engels Michelle Lefevre Kristine Hickle Barry Luckock Gillian Ruch The British Journal of Social Work bcw181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcw181 Published: 14 February 2017   Abstract by authors:   Research with children and youn ...

    The British Journal of Social Work bcw181.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcw181Published: 14 February 2017 Abstract by authors: Research with children and young people at risk of child sexual exploitation (CSE) has highlighted that professionals need to engage children in relationships of trust if they are to be most successful in enabling children to explore and address risky behaviours, situations and relationships. More needs to be understood about professional approaches to building such trusting relationships, particularly when children feel (often with good cause) that professionals are not always able to balance their need for protection and guidance with their right to a voice and to make agentic choices about their own lives. This paper draws on interim findings from a two-year realist evaluation study funded by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner in England into the implementation and evaluation of a new child-centred framework for working with CSE , ‘See Me, Hear Me’, within three pilot local authority sites in different regions of England. A survey and qualitative interviews reveal how professionals from a range of disciplines draw on their knowledge, skills, personal qualities and values to develop trust. Key themes for effective practice were relationship-based practice, an ethically grounded approach, child-centred, and being skilled and knowledgeable in relation to working with CSE.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United Kingdom
    • Michelle Lefevre
    • Kristine Hickle
    • Barry Luckock
    • Gillian Ruch
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels Howard Dubowitz Abstract by author: The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention ...

    Abstract by author:The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) has conducted surveillance of child maltreatment and child protection every two years, published in World Perspectives on Child Abuse. It is hoped that up to date information will inform the development of laws, policies and programs to better address child abuse and neglect. This article is based on data on child sexual abuse and exploitation from 73 countries gathered online in 2015-16 for the 12 edition of World Perspectives. Respondents were key informants who were knowledgeable professionals in the child protection field. They were encouraged to consult with colleagues so as to provide accurate information. Countries were grouped into different regions of the world and into income level categories. The findings focus on definitions of abuse and neglect, laws, policies and programs to address and prevent maltreatment and barriers to prevention. It is evident that there is considerable variability across regions and country income categories, and that programs and services need to be considerably strengthened, even in high income countries.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Howard Dubowitz
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Prevention
    • Engels

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