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Resultaten 1 - 10 van totaal 22 resultaten
  1. Taal Engels United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) From executive summary:   Millions of children are on the move across international borders – fleeing violence and conflict, disaster or poverty, in pursuit of a better life. Hundreds ...

    From executive summary: Millions of children are on the move across international borders – fleeing violence and conflict, disaster or poverty, in pursuit of a better life. Hundreds of thousands move on their own. When they encounter few opportunities to move legally, children resort to dangerous routes and engage smugglers to help them cross borders. Serious gaps in the laws, policies and services meant to protect children on the move further leave them bereft of protection and care. Deprived, unprotected, and often alone, children on the move can become easy prey for traffickers and others who abuse and exploit them.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International
    • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    • Violence Against Children
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Migrant Children
    • Engels
  2. Taal Engels James Cockayne United Nations University Abstract by author:   Human trafficking is both illegal and big business. The International Labour Organization estimates that forced labour, one of the forms of exploitation into which h ...

    Abstract by author: Human trafficking is both illegal and big business. The International Labour Organization estimates that forced labour, one of the forms of exploitation into which humans are trafficked, generates $150 billion a year in revenues, while the Global Slavery Index suggests there may be as many as 45.8 million people enslaved today. Most of the victims are women and girls. The funds generated by human trafficking are proceeds of crime. Handling those funds can constitute money laundering or, in certain cases where designated terrorist organizations are involved, terrorist financing. Financial institutions that handle funds generated by human trafficking and modern slavery, or that finance businesses that engage in these crimes, thus risk violating a range of existing laws and norms, especially in the area of anti-money laundering (AML) and countering the financing of terrorism (CFT). To help industry actors and regulators think through their options for disrupting ties between the financial sector and human trafficking and modern slavery, UN University convened a workshop at Grace Farms in New Canaan, Connecticut, with the support of the Permanent Mission of Liechtenstein to the United Nations. Participants identified three main areas for action: strengthening sectoral knowledge uptake; improving regulation and encouraging leadership; and promoting information partnerships.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International
    • James Cockayne
    • United Nations University
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • modern slavery
    • financial sector
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels Jasmine-Kim Westendorf Louise Searle International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001 Published: 01 March 2017   Abstract by authors:   In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation ...

    International Affairs (2017) 93 (2): 365-387.DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix001Published: 01 March 2017 Abstract by authors: In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) ‘the most significant risk to UN peacekeeping missions’. The exploitation and abuse of women and children by peacekeepers, aid workers, private contractors and other interveners has become ubiquitous to peace operations, ranging from rape to transactional sex, sex trafficking, prostitution and pornography. This article investigates the causes of SEA by interveners, and the development of policy responses undertaken by the UN and the international humanitarian community to prevent and ensure accountability for SEA. We argue that use of the umbrella term ‘SEA’, while helpful in distinguishing such behaviour from other forms of abuse, obscures the significant differences in the form, function and causes of the behaviours that fall under it, and we develop an account of the dominant forms SEA takes, based on survivor testimony, in order to better understand why policy responses have been ineffective. Our analysis of global policies around SEA demonstrates that it is dealt with as a discrete form of misbehaviour that occurs on an individual level and can be addressed through largely information-based training processes that inform personnel of its prohibition but fail to engage them in discussions of the local, international, normative, systemic and structural factors that give rise to it. We identify the structural and bureaucratic pressures that have contributed to the narrowing of approach regarding SEA to focus on individual compliance rather than the more complex set of factors at play, and which have undermined the effectiveness of policies globally.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Jasmine-Kim Westendorf
    • Louise Searle
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Gender
    • Engels
  4. Taal Engels Howard Dubowitz Abstract by author: The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention ...

    Abstract by author:The view of what constitutes child abuse and neglect is dependent on the laws, cultural context, local thresholds and the availability. Since 1982, the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) has conducted surveillance of child maltreatment and child protection every two years, published in World Perspectives on Child Abuse. It is hoped that up to date information will inform the development of laws, policies and programs to better address child abuse and neglect. This article is based on data on child sexual abuse and exploitation from 73 countries gathered online in 2015-16 for the 12 edition of World Perspectives. Respondents were key informants who were knowledgeable professionals in the child protection field. They were encouraged to consult with colleagues so as to provide accurate information. Countries were grouped into different regions of the world and into income level categories. The findings focus on definitions of abuse and neglect, laws, policies and programs to address and prevent maltreatment and barriers to prevention. It is evident that there is considerable variability across regions and country income categories, and that programs and services need to be considerably strengthened, even in high income countries.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Howard Dubowitz
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Sexual Exploitation
    • Prevention
    • Engels
  5. 2 reads Save the Children the International Rescue Committee Language Dutch Uit Persbericht Save the Children 03-04-2017: 1300 kinderen op de vlucht lopen extreme risico’s op Balkan Zo’n 1.300 alleenreizende minderjarige vluchtelingen en migranten lopen e ...

    Uit Persbericht Save the Children 03-04-2017: 1300 kinderen op de vlucht lopen extreme risico’s op BalkanZo’n 1.300 alleenreizende minderjarige vluchtelingen en migranten lopen een verhoogd risico om slachtoffer te worden van uitbuiting, geweld en mensenhandel door het strenge grensbeleid en de gebrekkige bescherming op de Balkan. Dat stellen twaalf ngo’s, waaronder Save the Children en Stichting Vluchteling/IRC, in het rapport ‘Uit het Zicht, Uitgebuit en Alleen’ dat vandaag verschijnt. Een aantal landen slaagt er niet in om deze enorm kwetsbare kinderen, van wie sommigen niet ouder zijn dan negen, te identificeren en goed op te vangen. Ze zijn op de vlucht voor oorlog of armoede en reisden duizenden kilometers zonder ouders of voogd. Vaak zijn ze onzichtbaar voor de autoriteiten en als ze wel bekend zijn, worden ze vaak opgevangen onder volstrekt ontoereikende omstandigheden, of zelfs opgesloten. Dat zorgt voor wanhoop en het duwt kinderen in de armen van smokkelaars en mensenhandelaren.  

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • International
    • the International Rescue Committee
    • Save the Children
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Alleenstaande Minderjarige Vreemdeling (AMV)
    • Kinderhandel
    • Alleenstaande Minderjarige Asielzoeker (AMA)
    • Engels
  6. Taal Engels Christina Bloem MD MPH Rikki E. Morris DO and Makini Chisolm-Straker Abstract Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critic ...

    Abstract Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • DO
    • and Makini Chisolm-Straker
    • Christina Bloem
    • MD
    • MPH
    • Rikki E. Morris
    • Conflict areas
    • Health care
    • Ethics
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Engels
  7. 3 Asif Efrat Taal Engels Abstract: Human trafficking has been the subject of growing attention from both scholars and policymakers. The internationally accepted definition of human trafficking used by governments and international organizati ...

    Abstract:Human trafficking has been the subject of growing attention from both scholars and policymakers. The internationally accepted definition of human trafficking used by governments and international organizations identifies three purposes of trading in persons: sexual exploitation, labor exploitation, and the removal of organs. I argue that conflating sex, labor, and organ trafficking in policy initiatives and in the scholarly literature overlooks major differences between these practices—differences that greatly affect governments’ willingness and ability to curb them. This article identifies three such differences: the social status and political influence of the perpetrators, the precision of norms and their resonance with audiences, and the costs of enforcement. Through these distinctions, I explain why Israel has been vigorous in combating sex trafficking, yet hesitant to tackle labor and organ trafficking. The Israeli experience highlights the different challenges posed by sex, labor, and organ trafficking and offers important lessons for the study of these phenomena.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • International
    • Asif Efrat
    • Orgaanhandel
    • organ trade
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • law enforcement
    • norms
    • Engels
  8. Language English 1 read Michael B. Gerrard Columbia Law School 'It is well documented that displacement leads to a considerable increase in human trafficking. The UN Environment Programme has indicated that trafficking may increase by 20-30% during d ...

    'It is well documented that displacement leads to a considerable increase in human trafficking. The UN Environment Programme has indicated that trafficking may increase by 20-30% during disasters, and INTERPOL has warned that disasters or conflict may increase the exposure of women to trafficking as families are disrupted and livelihoods are lost.3 There are multiple instances in which trafficking has been shown to increase in the aftermath of cyclones, flooding, earthquakes and tsunamis.4 Some of this is for sex trafficking, some of it is for forced labor. We also see a great deal of human smuggling leading to journeys that are perilous and too often fatal.'

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • International
    • Michael B. Gerrard Columbia Law School
    • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
    • Migration
    • Engels
  9. Taal Engels ECPAT International There are limits to what governments and law enforcement can do alone. But there is no limit to what governments, law enforcement, civil society and committed private sector partners can do together. Technolo ...

    There are limits to what governments and law enforcement can do alone. But there is no limit to what governments, law enforcement, civil society and committed private sector partners can do together.Technology is a force for good. Yet, there is a dark side. Technology also facilitates the exploitation of children and creates enforcement gaps. We have to change that. We have to catch up. We have to innovate. Technology is a central part of the challenge, but I believe that within technology resides the solution.

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • International
    • ECPAT International
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Engels
  10. Taal Engels ECPAT International It is necessary for States to have adequate legal and institutional frameworks to protect children from sexual exploitation in travel and tourism. Companies that fail to protect children or even violate child ...

    It is necessary for States to have adequate legal and institutional frameworks to protect children from sexual exploitation in travel and tourism. Companies that fail to protect children or even violate children´s rights should be held liable. With international law being directed primarily at States, the question of liability for corporate violations has proved difficult. Yet, it is central when considering the role of a child victimised by sexual crimes in tourism.The overall objective of this study is to analyse the existing legal and ‘soft law’ instruments that address corporate liability in the context of sexual exploitation of children in travel and tourism (SECTT). The study also explores the possibility of holding companies liable to international and domestic law and, accordingly, identify gaps and future challenges.

    Publicaties

    • Publicaties
    • International
    • ECPAT International
    • Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism (SECTT)
    • Engels

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