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  1. Taal Engels Loyola University New Orleans Modern Slavery Research Project Human trafficking — the exploitation of a person’s labor through force, fraud, or coercion — is a crime whose victims tend to be society’s most vulnerable. People who ...

    Human trafficking — the exploitation of a person’s labor through force, fraud, or coercion — is a crime whose victims tend to be society’s most vulnerable. People who are homeless, lack a support system, or are desperate for work are susceptible to the promises of people who would exploit them for labor and for sex. Recently, homeless youth providers in the United States and Canada have become aware that their clients are particularly at risk of trafficking, and research has begun to uncover the extent and contours of the problem within that community.For more information see: Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • Canada
    • United States of America
    • Loyola University New Orleans
    • Modern Slavery Research Project
    • Engels
  2. Taal Engels Sandra Wann University of Houston-Clear Lake Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926 Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work: http://gradworks.proquest.com/103 ...

    Wann, Sandra, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE, 2016, 110 pages; 10307926Use the link below to access the full text PDF of this graduate work:http://gradworks.proquest.com/10307926.pdfAbstract by author:Human trafficking has recently risen to become the second largest organized crime world-wide. Also, commonly referred to as "modern day slavery," this international crime exposes our inherent criminal justice issues due to linkage blindness and the marginalization of victims. The problem is not the absence of laws, but rather a systemic breakdown in basic communication among those entrusted with the duty to protect and serve. Law enforcement apprehends and the criminal justice system prosecutes the victims of this heinous enterprise instead of pursuing justice on their behalf. The marginalization of the victims of this horrific crime further serves to compound the misery suffered by those unfortunate enough to be caught in the snare of modern day slavery, which plaques our globe and threatens our humanity. Although human trafficking includes trafficking for forced labor, trafficking in commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism, and trafficking in organs, this paper will focus on trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation.  

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Sandra Wann
    • University of Houston-Clear Lake
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Engels
  3. Taal Engels Britteny Pfleger Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016) Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19 Intro ...

    Britteny Pfleger, Syntax or Experience: What Should Determine If Sex Trafficking Qualifies as a Crime of Violence?, 81 Mo. L. Rev. (2016)Available at: http://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol81/iss4/19Introduction by author:The residents of Lebanon, Missouri, a small town in the southern part of the state, certainly did not believe their kind, generous neighbors were in fact sadistic slave owners.1 Yet such brutality existed, lurking beneath one such family’s gentle and caring façade.2 In what was later described as the most horrific case of sex trafficking ever prosecuted in the state, a resident couple housed a mentally deficient runaway teenage girl with a troubled past and forced her to sign a never-ending sex-slave contract.3 “Master Ed” branded his victim with a bar code tattoo, marking her as his property, and forced her to have sex with him and several “customers.”4 Over the next six years, Master Ed subjected the girl to waterboarding, electrocution, and beatings.5 He repeatedly threatened his victim with a gun, exhibiting his ability to kill her if she did not comply.6 The trafficking was not discovered until 2009, when the victim went into cardiac arrest after one of Master Ed’s torture sessions, resulting in her hospitalization and emergency treatment.7 While the circumstances in the Lebanon case were especially horrific, the practice of sex trafficking is not unique. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (“NHTRC”) reported 4136 cases of sex trafficking in the United States in 2015,8 including 155 cases in Missouri between 2013 and 2015.9 To combat these alarming statistics, Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (“TVPA”) in 2000 to “ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers.”10 The TVPA criminalizes the trafficking of people in the commercial sex industry by force, fraud, or coercion.11 A conviction under this statute subjects a defendant to a minimum of fifteen years in federal prison.12 Separately, Congress authorized federal prosecutors to charge defendants who possess a gun while committing a “crime of violence” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c).13 A conviction under this statute is punishable by at least five years, served in addition to the underlying crime of violence.14 To convict a defendant under § 924(c), prosecutors must show (1) the defendant possessed or used a gun in the commission of his or her crime and (2) the crime committed is characterized as a “crime of violence.”15 Prior to 2015, federal courts agreed the sex trafficking of minors was a “crime of violence.”16 however, in August 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit went against this trend, declaring sex trafficking of an adult victim not to be a crime of violence.17 This Note analyzes the Fourth Circuit’s opinion in United States v. Fuertes, ultimately concluding that, contrary to the decision in Fuertes, sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). Part II of this Note details the acts of German Ventura, a defendant charged with sex trafficking and possession of a gun during a crime of violence. Part III explores the purpose of § 924(c) and courts’ interpretations of “crime of violence”; it then considers federal circuit courts’ bases for finding sex trafficking under the TVPA to be a violent crime under a variety of statutes. Part IV summarizes the Fourth Circuit’s decision to depart from established precedent. Part V scrutinizes the court’s theory that sex trafficking cannot be a violent crime, ultimately resolving that, while sex trafficking should be considered a crime of violence, Congress must change the statute to expressly reflect the violent nature of sex trafficking.

    Publicaties

    • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Britteny Pfleger
    • Sex Trafficking
    • Crime of Violence
    • Engels
  4. 41 reads Language English This project builds on nearly ten years of research, at three different levels of academic study, and aims to answer the following question: ' How have judges presiding over Québec provincial courts interpreted and enforced ...

    This project builds on nearly ten years of research, at three different levels of academic study, and aims to answer the following question: 'How have judges presiding over Québec provincial courts interpreted and enforced section 172.1 (Luring a Child) of the Criminal Code of Canada?'The project is designed to provide a more detailed understanding of persons charged under the authority of the Criminal Code’s Luring a Child provision, the circumstances of the offence, and how Québec provincial court judges interpreted this information, rendered related decisions, and, in so doing, enforced this particular area of Canadian criminal law.The proposed postdoctoral project is designed to provide a more expansive understanding of the ICL phenomenon.

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Grooming
    • Grooming
    • Strafrecht
    • Prosecution
    • Pedoseksualiteit
    • Child trafficking
    • Engels
  5. Taal Engels Abstract: 'This thesis explores how the traumatic experience of human trafficking can have a psychological effect on the second-generation. As there is a lack of research and literature on the transgenerational traumatizati ...

    Abstract:'This thesis explores how the traumatic experience of human trafficking can have a psychological effect on the second-generation. As there is a lack of research and literature on the transgenerational traumatization of human trafficking, this is a comparative work that examines and compares the characteristics and effects of three other forms of trauma: torture, sexual assault, and the Holocaust. This paper then extrapolates to consider what similar effects human trafficking might have upon the second generation. The literature relied upon come from a number of fields, including psychology, social work, and public policy. This work will first provide a description of trauma, including what constitutes trauma and the typical effects that can be expected from a victim of trauma. This thesis then ultimately provides an analysis of what can be expected from the children of victims of human trafficking, based on the findings of the transgenerational traumatization of torture, sexual assault, and the Holocaust. A proposal for treatment and suggested course of action is also presented.'

    Publicaties

    • Thesis
    • United States of America
    • Trauma
    • Gevolgen mensenhandel
    • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • Trauma
    • Engels
  6. 6 Taal Engels Abstract: 'This paper addresses and analyses the growing threat of sexual harassment in cyberspace. Digital transactions and communications have, over the past decade, been increasingly transpiring at an increasingly accel ...

    Abstract:'This paper addresses and analyses the growing threat of sexual harassment in cyberspace. Digital transactions and communications have, over the past decade, been increasingly transpiring at an increasingly accelerated rate. This non-linear progression has generated a myriad of risks associated with the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in cyberspace communications, amongst the most important of which is: the threat of sexual harassment. On such account, this paper aims to provide an overview of the issues and risks pertinent to sexual harassment and seeks to offer some solutions based on the necessity of pursuing a tri-fold policy encompassing strategic and regulatory, technical, and cultural approaches.'

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United States of America
    • Sextortion
    • Grooming
    • Sexting
    • Sexting
    • Sextortion
    • Grooming
    • Social Media
    • Engels
  7. Taal Engels Abstract: 'Sexting can be a costly activity, particularly for teenagers. As more teenagers engage in sending sexually explicit images to one another, the likelihood of serious long-term consequences increases. When sexting ...

    Abstract:'Sexting can be a costly activity, particularly for teenagers. As more teenagers engage in sending sexually explicit images to one another, the likelihood of serious long-term consequences increases. When sexting is used as a means to bully, the potential severity of consequences also increases. In many jurisdictions, prosecutors may charge juveniles caught sexting with possession or distribution of child pornography. At the same time, some states have recognized the severity of such a charge and found other ways of addressing the teen sexting problem. This Comment addresses the current issues surrounding juvenile sexting by examining empirical data, legal responses, and legislative reactions. It argues that Washington’s current approach to juvenile sexting is inappropriate and should be amended. It suggests a two-tiered statute that separates non-malicious juvenile sexting from malicious juvenile sexting. The proposed statute, which would punish cyberbullying and malicious juvenile sexting more severely, will allow Washington to effectively deter harmful behavior while taking into account juvenile immaturity.'

    Publicaties

    • Artikelen
    • United States of America
    • Sexting
    • Sexting
    • Sextortion
    • Social Media
    • Grounds for prosecution
    • Engels
  8. 2 Taal Engels This report explores the relationship between sexual violence and social media with a focus on youth. The research aims to investigate the relationship between sexual violence and social media among youth. It also offers recomm ...

    This report explores the relationship between sexual violence and social media with a focus on youth. The research aims to investigate the relationship between sexual violence and social media among youth. It also offers recommendations to help stimulate discussions about prevention programming and evaluation in Ottawa.

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United States of America
    • Internet
    • Sexting
    • Sexting
    • Sexual violence
    • Social Media
    • Risk behaviour by children on the internet
    • Grooming
    • Engels
  9. ECPAT Taal Engels ECPAT International published the second edition of the Agenda for Action (A4A) Country Reports monitoring the status of action against the commercial sexual exploitation of children. This report contains the Country Repor ...

    ECPAT International published the second edition of the Agenda for Action (A4A) Country Reports monitoring the status of action against the commercial sexual exploitation of children. This report contains the Country Report for the United States. It states:'The information of each country report is organised to correspond to the structure of the Agenda for Action. Thus all the 2nd Edition reports feature updated information in relation to: (i) an overview of the main CSEC manifestations affecting the country; (ii) analysis of the country’s National Plan of Action (NPA) against CSEC and its implementation (or the absence of an NPA); (iii) overview and analysis of coordination and cooperation efforts during the period under review; (iv) overview and analysis of prevention efforts; (v) overview and analysis of protection efforts, which includes detailed information on national legislation related to CSEC; (vi) overview and analysis of country’s efforts incorporate participation of children in youth in the development and implementation of efforts to combat CSEC and (vii) priority actions required.'

    Publicaties

    • Rapporten
    • United States of America
    • ECPAT
    • Internet
    • Minderjarigen / Kinderhandel
    • Jeugdprostitutie
    • Child sex tourism
    • Child pornography
    • Sexting
    • Engels
  10. Polaris Project Taal Engels 'The following document outlines a wide variety of both physical and psychological reasons why trafficked  persons cannot or will not leave a trafficking situation. The list is inclusive of both sex and labo ...

    'The following document outlines a wide variety of both physical and psychological reasons why trafficked persons cannot or will not leave a trafficking situation. The list is inclusive of both sex and labor trafficking operations, as well as foreign-born and U.S. citizen victims. Items on this list are not meant to be interpreted as present in all trafficking cases, neither is this list intended to be exhaustive.'

    Publicaties

    • Werkdocumenten/handleidingen
    • United States of America
    • Polaris Project
    • Dwangmiddelen
    • Victimization
    • Victims' perspective
    • Coercive measures
    • Engels

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