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  1. 9 keer gelezen Taal Engels Abstract: 'This thesis explores how the traumatic experience of human trafficking can have a psychological effect on the second-generation. As there is a lack of research and literature on the transgenerational traumatizati ...

    Abstract:'This thesis explores how the traumatic experience of human trafficking can have a psychological effect on the second-generation. As there is a lack of research and literature on the transgenerational traumatization of human trafficking, this is a comparative work that examines and compares the characteristics and effects of three other forms of trauma: torture, sexual assault, and the Holocaust. This paper then extrapolates to consider what similar effects human trafficking might have upon the second generation. The literature relied upon come from a number of fields, including psychology, social work, and public policy. This work will first provide a description of trauma, including what constitutes trauma and the typical effects that can be expected from a victim of trauma. This thesis then ultimately provides an analysis of what can be expected from the children of victims of human trafficking, based on the findings of the transgenerational traumatization of torture, sexual assault, and the Holocaust. A proposal for treatment and suggested course of action is also presented.'

    Publications

    • Thesis
    • United States of America
    • Trauma
    • Trauma
    • Consequences of human trafficking
    • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • English
  2. 1 keer gelezen Taal Engels This paper seeks to answer the question: Could prosecutors’ greater awareness of the effects of trauma on human trafficking victims lead to more effective prosecution and increased convictions for human trafficking in the United ...

    This paper seeks to answer the question: Could prosecutors’ greater awareness of the effects of trauma on human trafficking victims lead to more effective prosecution and increased convictions for human trafficking in the United States? The question will be answered and the solutions presented by using scholarly research in the fields of trauma, victim rights, and human trafficking to argue that greater prosecutorial awareness and response to victims’ needs is one way to improve outcomes in human trafficking prosecutions and fulfill the federal mandate to protect victims of trafficking.

    Publications

    • Thesis
    • United States of America
    • Trauma
    • Trauma
    • Victims' perspective
    • Victimization
    • Prosecution
    • English
  3. Language Dutch 5 By: Mazeda Hossain, MSc, Cathy Zimmerman, PhD, Melanie Abas, MD, MSc, Miriam Light, MSc, and Charlotte Watts, PhD. "We explored the association between traumatic events and mental health among girls and women trafficked for se ...

    By: Mazeda Hossain, MSc, Cathy Zimmerman, PhD, Melanie Abas, MD, MSc, Miriam Light, MSc, and Charlotte Watts, PhD."We explored the association between traumatic events and mental health among girls and women trafficked for sexual exploitation."

    Publications

    • Thesis
    • Care
    • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • Trauma
    • English
  4. Language Dutch 4 Adolescente vrouwen die door middel van emotionele manipulatie, bedreiging en/of mishandeling in de prostitutie terecht zijn gekomen, zijn de hoofdpersonen van mijn afstudeeronderzoek. Pooiers gebruiken diverse tactieken om vrouwen ...

    Adolescente vrouwen die door middel van emotionele manipulatie, bedreiging en/of mishandeling in de prostitutie terecht zijn gekomen, zijn de hoofdpersonen van mijn afstudeeronderzoek. Pooiers gebruiken diverse tactieken om vrouwen aan zich binden om ze vervolgens in de prostitutie uit te buiten, waardoor het voor vrouwen zelf vaak onduidelijk is of ze vrijwillige of onvrijwillig deze arbeid verrichten.Loverboy methoden gaan vaak gepaard met (relationeel) seksueel misbruik en/of criminele praktijken als drugs- en wapenhandel en/of afpersing waarbij vrouwen grote schulden oplopen. In mijn afstudeeronderzoek heb ik vrouwen tussen de 15 en 24 jaar geïnterviewd die uit de prostitutie zijn gestapt en bij hun loverboy weg zijn en nog in het losmaking/verwerkingproces zitten. Door alle gebeurtenissen heen vormen zij hun identiteit en strijden ze tegen zichzelf en tegen anderen om er te mogen zijn.In mijn afstudeeronderzoek heb ik nadruk gelegd op de hersenontwikkelingen in de adolescentie aan de hand van het werk van Crone (2008). Naar voren is gekomen dat dit de emotionele en cognitieve hersengedeelten in de adolescentie nog niet met elkaar in balans zijn. De langdurige stresssituatie waar vrouwen uit de onderzoeksgroep mee te maken hebben gehad, verergert nog eens deze instabiliteit.Toekomstig onderzoek moet uitwijzen in welke mate de structuur en de functie van de beschadigde hersengebieden herstellen ná de stresssituatie. Verwarring, onzekerheid en tegenstrijdigheden, die door de pooier nog eens extra aangezet worden, spelen een rol bij hun identiteitsontwikkeling. Door angst en (dreiging van) geweld zijn ze van eigen behoeften en verlangens weggedreven en/of hebben ze steeds meer hun eigen grenzen verlegd.Hersenontwikkelingen zorgen ervoor dat cognitieve vaardigheden en emotionele inschattingen in de adolescentie toenemen en zorgen voor een groeiend besef van de misbruik- en uitbuitingsituatie. Daarnaast heb ik de aandacht gehad voor intersubjectiviteit aan de hand van perspectieven van Benjamin (1988). Intersubjectiviteit houdt in dat een subject niet op zichzelf staat maar in verhouding tot andere subjecten. In de intersubjectieve benadering is zelfbepaling en identiteitsontwikkeling verbonden aan de afhankelijkheid van erkenning van een ander dat inherent is aan het menselijk bestaan. Daarbij bestaat de noodzaak dat deze afhankelijk van erkenning wederkerig is.Benjamins perspectief op het belang van wederkerige erkenning leidt uiteindelijk naar een uiteenzetting van macht en overheersing, die van toepassing is op de relatie tussen pooier en vrouwen uit de onderzoeksgroep. In de onderdanigheid en gehoorzaamheid kan zowel onmacht als verlangen ervaren worden en wordt een zelfdefiniëring gevonden.

    Publications

    • Thesis
    • Care
    • Loverboy
    • Dutch
  5. 7 Language Dutch This study was conducted in the red-light area of Pune city, India. The target group of the study is sex workers that are victims of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The purpose of this study was to examine ...

    This study was conducted in the red-light area of Pune city, India. The target group of the study is sex workers that are victims of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The purpose of this study was to examine the initial and continuing trauma and its effects, and the coping strategies that these women develop in order to survive. The initial trauma occurs during the trafficking and seasoning process in the brothel. The term continuing trauma refers to violence and psychological trauma that are part of sex workers lives. The main questions answered during this survey regarded how women were trafficked and seasoned, what coping strategies they used during seasoning, how the lives of sex workers are in terms of violence and psychological trauma and what coping strategies are used in order to bear brothel prostitution. I used qualitative research method. I interviewed 15 sex workers, 13 of those interviews were used in this study. The results of my study show that brothel owners use systematic methods of coercion and control in order to break women’s resistance so that they will adapt to captivity, believing that they have ceased to exist socially except as sex workers. The institution of trafficking and prostitution has developed to perfection the art of torture. Brothel owners use unpredictable and extreme violence in form of physical and sexual abuse to break women physically and mentally, making them controllable and submissive. While in captivity, unable to escape and under total control of their perpetrators, my respondents experienced prolonged and repeated trauma. Brothel owners methods of brainwashing, indoctrination, physical control and physical and sexual abuse, ultimately lead to a new identity formation among my respondents. The women’s former identity was gradually and irrevocably destroyed while a new enslaved identity was built, an identity that included a body that could be controlled, used and violated by others, a new self image of a dehumanized person and a reality that only consists of evil and where nobody can be trusted. Although the amount of violence inflicted on my respondents declined after the seasoning process ended and they had accepted to entertain the customers, the physical and emotional violence was a norm in brothel prostitution. They were trapped in a reality where they were forced to serve innumerable men throughout the day and night, they were depersonalized, who they used to be and where they came from, their history, their family, and their identity, none of that mattered any more. Even though they were not physically forced to serve men as they had been during seasoning, they were doing their part without protest in order to survive and that was having a devastating impact on their self, their individuality and their humanity. Trafficking and brothel prostitution had a devastating impact on my respondents. They suffer psychological, physical and social damage. The only reason they are still alive today is because of their strength, resilience and different ways of coping.

    Publications

    • Thesis
    • India
    • Care
    • Trauma
    • English