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    1. Language English 1 read Simon Hedlin Simon Hedlin, Can Prostitution Law Reform Curb Sex Trafficking? Theory and Evidence on Scale Substitution, and Replacement Effects, 50 U. Mich. J. L. Reform 329 (2016). Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjl ...

      Simon Hedlin, Can Prostitution Law Reform Curb Sex Trafficking? Theory and Evidence on Scale Substitution, and Replacement Effects, 50U. Mich. J. L. Reform 329 (2016).Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjlr/vol50/iss2/3By author: Sex trafficking, a pervasive problem in many parts of the world, has become increasingly salient to policymakers and the general public. Activists, politicians, and scholars continue to engage in debates about how best to curb it. This Article discusses one especially contentious dimension of these debates: does banning prostitution reduce sex trafficking? Or is legalizing prostitution the optimal approach? Or is there a third, better way? Proceeding both theoretically and empirically, this Article seeks to cast light on the relationship between different types of prostitution laws and the prevalence of sex trafficking and human trafficking. It attempts to make three contributions to the literature. First, it builds on existing theories of the link between the demand for purchased sex and the supply of sex-trafficking victims to create a simple ordinal measure of prostitution laws. This measure, which the Article dubs the Prostitution Law Index (PLI), captures not only whether prostitution overall is legal or illegal, but whether buying sex is legal or illegal and whether selling sex is legal or illegal, which better reflects the actual cross-country variation in prostitution laws. The PLI takes into account scale, substitution, and replacement effects in the market for prostitution, where scale refers to increases in the prevalence of trafficking that are caused by growth of the overall market for prostitution; substitution to decreases in trafficking caused by current consumers who purchase sex with trafficking victims and, based on the risk of criminal sanction, shift to instead purchasing sex with individuals who voluntarily sell sex, thereby crowding out trafficking victims; and replacement to decreases in trafficking caused by new voluntary sellers of sex who, incentivized by changes in prostitution laws, enter the market and crowd out trafficking victims. The PLI ranks prostitution laws across countries on a four-point scale (from 1 to 4), based on their expected effectiveness (from least to most effective) in reducing sex trafficking. Second, the study uses a recent dataset provided by the European Union to map the statistical relationship between PLI scores and prevalence of sex trafficking, based on the Article’s theory of scale, substitution, and replacement effects. The analysis suggests that there generally is an inverse relationship between a country’s PLI score and the prevalence of trafficking in that country. Greater legislative efforts to reduce scale and to increase substitution and replacement appear, on average, to be associated with lower levels of sex trafficking. Third, the Article presents a basic Difference-in-Differences analysis—on the basis of extremely limited data and thus with an unusually large number of caveats— of Norway’s 2009 prostitution law reform. Tentative results indicate that the Norwegian reform, which made it legal to sell but illegal to buy sex, may potentially have helped reduce the prevalence of trafficking there. 

      Publications

      • Wetenschappelijke Artikelen
      • European Union
      • Simon Hedlin
      • Sex Trafficking
      • Prostitution
      • English
    2. 3 keer gelezen Taal Nederlands The TRACE project handbook is now available: http://trace-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/TRACE_handbook.pdf This handbook aims to support stakeholders by assessing and consolidating information about traffickers and t ...

      The TRACE project handbook is now available: http://trace-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/TRACE_handbook.pdfThis handbook aims to support stakeholders by assessing and consolidating information about traffickers and trafficked persons, the wider criminal enterprise and its modus operandi, and the role of technology, as well as current and future trends. Understanding the crime within the broader context of the human trafficking enterprise can assist these three target groups in their efforts to effectively disrupt the human trafficking activities now and in the future.

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
      • English
    3. Taal Engels 1 keer gelezen European Parliament Trafficking in human beings (THB), in all its forms, is a serious crime affecting fundamental rights, health, social life, economy and justice. THB knows no boundaries and most reported victims are female EU ...

      Trafficking in human beings (THB), in all its forms, is a serious crime affecting fundamental rights, health, social life, economy and justice. THB knows no boundaries and most reported victims are female EU nationals from Central and Eastern Europe. THB can be tackled effectively only through a coherent approach at the levels of legislation and executive powers and through strategic policy-making. Proper investigation and prosecution are important and enhance victim protection and assistance as well as prevention. However, taking into account the gender dimension of THB is essential to ensure adequate support for the victims as well as effective prevention. The 2011 EU Anti-Trafficking Directive represents a landmark piece of legislation in that respect.The Ex-Post Impact Assessment Unit of the European Parliament has asked several groups of experts to analyse the implementation and application of the Directive, from a gender perspective, in 12 Member States: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, the UK and Spain. The contributions received point to an uneven implementation of the Directive's requirements across the EU Member States.The findings emphasise the need to improve the identification of victims, which is key for granting them protection, to establish better training on the gender aspects of the different forms of human trafficking for front-line officers, to enhance cooperation between public administration and competent NGOs, and to expand prevention via public awareness campaigning.

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • European Parliament
      • Gender dimension
      • Women's rights
      • Victim protection
      • English
    4. Language Dutch 2 Europol Europol functions as a centre of expertise for strategic and operational intelligence and as an information hub for criminal data concerning the most threatening OCGs active in the EU. Europol provides operational support t ...

      Europol functions as a centre of expertise for strategic and operational intelligence and as an information hub for criminal data concerning the most threatening OCGs active in the EU. Europol provides operational support to MS law enforcement authorities. The EU Strategy 2012-2016 outlined specific tools through which Europol can assist MS’ investigative activities and persecution of traffickers. These include the enhancing of the intelligence picture on criminal phenomena and the training of specific law enforcement units and experts.This latest report of Europol is descriptive and oriented towards explaining the current crime situation providing an overview of all relevant factors (OCGs, criminal markets, and geographical dimension): the definitions of human trafficking, the push-, pull and the facilitating factors, the modus operandi of the traffickers concerning sexual exploitation as well as labour exploitation, forced sham marriages and forced criminality.Key findings of the report:Trafficking in human beings (THB) in the EU is predominantly a European affair. 70% of the identified victims and suspects in the EU are EU nationals.Victims and suspects generally share nationality, ethnic ties and sometimes kinship links.Mobility and rotation of victims are key features within this criminal market. Austria is a crucial transit country, especially for victims originating from Central Eastern Europe. Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom are key entry points for non-EU victims.A vast majority of the criminal groups active in THB are capable of controlling the entire process of trafficking, from the recruitment of victims to the reinvestment of the criminal proceeds. While most traffickers are male, female suspects are also involved in low-ranking tasks. Nigerian criminal networks form an exception where women play a central role in the exploitation process.The typical structure of criminal groups engaged in THB consists of loose networks linked by kinship or ethnic ties.Criminal proceeds are primarily sent back to their country of origin.Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is the most reported form of THB in the EU. Most reported victims are female EU nationals from Central and Eastern Europe.Non-EU victims mainly originate from Albania, Brazil, China, Nigeria, and Vietnam.EU victims usually use genuine documents, while non-EU victims use forged or look-alike documents.Deception is commonly used to lure potential victims, including the lover boy method.Human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation is increasingly being investigated. Most reported victims are male EU nationals originating from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic Estonia, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.The majority of non-EU victims come from countries bordering the EU (i.e. Albania, Moldova, Morocco, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine) and to a lesser extent from China, India, Iraq, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.The exploitation tends to take place in labour intensive and/or under-regulated industries such as the agricultural sector, the construction industry and hotel/restaurant/catering businesses.Trafficked workers use legitimate identification documents and often have legitimate permits which expire over time.Other forms of THB identified in the EU are for the purposes of forced begging, forced criminality and forced sham marriage. Traffickers involved in forced criminality (i.e.‘smash and grab’ theft, purse snatching, metal theft, pick pocketing and fraud, drug production and drug trafficking) and begging deliberately target vulnerable groups.Women have been forced to engage in marriages of convenience, in order to provide the legal right of stay to non-EU (third-country) nationals. 

      Goverment publications

      • Goverment publications
      • European Union
      • Europol
      • Sexual exploitation
      • forced criminality
      • forced sham marriages
      • trafficked underaged victims
      • labour exploitation
      • English
    5. Taal Engels 4 keer gelezen Europol Missing Children Europe INHOPE The European Finacial Coalition against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children online (EFC) is a coalition of key actors from law enforcement, the private sector and civil society in Eu ...

      The European Finacial Coalition against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children online (EFC) is a coalition of key actors from law enforcement, the private sector and civil society in Europe with the commpon goal of fighting the commercial sexual exploitation of children online.The aim of this report is to provide an update to the Strategic Assessment of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Online published in October 2013. The report states that there is a lack of a globally agreed definition of commercial Child Sexual Exploitation. This has multiple implications for organisations or projects dealing with the assessment of such content.

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • Europol
      • Missing Children Europe
      • INHOPE
      • Webcamsex
      • Child pornography
      • Child trafficking
      • Sextortion
      • English
    6. 2 keer gelezen Taal Engels Trafficking for Forced Criminal Activities and Begging in Europe: Exploratory Study and Good Practice Examples. Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of forced criminal exploitation is an increasingly significant phenomeno ...

      Trafficking for Forced Criminal Activities and Begging in Europe: Exploratory Study and Good Practice Examples.Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of forced criminal exploitation is an increasingly significant phenomenon in the European Union. Adults and children are trafficked and forced to commit crimes such as cannabis cultivation, ATM theft and benefit fraud or forced to beg. Inecognition of its increasing incidence and reports by frontline professionals, EU Directive (2011/36) (hereafter known as the EU Directive) includes a wider definition of trafficking to cover trafficking for forced criminal activities and forced begging. This inclusion highlighted the need for Member States to take action to address this form of trafficking. Despite the entry into force of the EU Directive there is a dearth of research and awareness about this type of exploitation with very few cases reported in official statistics and many victims misidentified as offenders. This report aims to go some way to address this and provide a baseline assessment of the issue, exploring the situation in the project partner countries (Ireland, the UK, the Czech Republic, and the Netherlands) and provide an overview of the rest of Europe. The findings show that the issue is more widespread than previously reported, with victims being exploited through a variety of criminal activities.

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • European Union
      • Criminal exploitation
      • Criminal exploitation
      • Beggary
      • English
    7. Taal Engels 1 keer gelezen Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 'The linkage between trafficking in human beings and torture and ill-treatment is often overlooked. In a 2008 Report, the former UN Special Rapporteur on torture a ...

      'The linkage between trafficking in human beings and torture and ill-treatment is often overlooked. In a 2008 Report, the former UN Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment acknowledged for the first time that in certain cases, and under certain conditions, trafficking can amount to torture and ill-treatment. The Committee against Torture has also recognized that human trafficking and torture are closely intertwined and has repeatedly commented on the need for appropriate legislation and other measures acknowledging this fact.In this context, this Fifth Occasional Paper (Paper) addresses and denounces the use of torture and other forms of ill-treatment by traffickers as a means to subjugate, control and punish trafficked people. It analyses under which circumstances trafficking can amount to torture or other forms of ill-treatment and it identifies the connection between both human rights violations from a clinical perspective. Importantly, the Paper provides the conceptual framework to understand what trafficking cases entail in terms of the physical and psychological effects on trafficked persons, and the legal and clinical implications that flow from this characterization, including in terms of legal entitlements.'

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
      • Torture
      • Ill-treatment
      • English
    8. Taal Engels 6 keer gelezen Abstract: 'The purpose of this study is to better understand the complexity of sex trafficking in Europe, by observing and comparing the state of sex trafficking in three locations. This paper is an exploratory essay that p ...

      Abstract:'The purpose of this study is to better understand the complexity of sex trafficking in Europe, by observing and comparing the state of sex trafficking in three locations. This paper is an exploratory essay that presents the policies and practices of private and public organizations in Prague, Amsterdam, and Stockholm. It also highlights some of the counter-trafficking efforts in these locations. Through our research, we found that increasing the general public’s awareness of sex trafficking is of primary importance with regards to prevention. It is also crucial to maintain flexibility when implementing counter-trafficking strategies. The most effective efforts are unique to each situation.'

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • Trafficking in women
      • English
    9. Taal Engels 4 keer gelezen Europol This report is updated annually and is intended to provide a general overview of Trafficking in Human Beings with a specific focus upon the European Union (EU). The first part of this report provides an overview of THB i ...

      This report is updated annually and is intended to provide a general overview of Trafficking in Human Beings with a specific focus upon the European Union (EU). The first part of this report provides an overview of THB in general; the second part describes more in detail the current and possible future situation regarding THB in the EU.

      Publications

      • Reports
      • European Union
      • Europol
      • Europol
      • Verklaring
      • Human trafficking / trafficking in persons
      • Victimization
      • English